Chinese jade, with a long history, a long history, rich and colorful, unique. The early jade artifacts unearthed at the neolithic sites, such as hemudu, proved that our ancestors had learned to make and use jade in the primitive society, at least 7,000 years ago. Jade people occupy an important position in Chinese jade sculpture art. Prehistoric red mountain culture, longshan culture, shijiazhe culture, liangzhu culture and other sites have been found. The jade people unearthed at the site of lingjiatan in anhui province are the only new Stone Age upright jade figure.
With the disintegration of the slave system and the establishment of feudalism, humanism was carried forward. During the warring states period, there appeared a new group of jade pendant, jade pei, on the jade ware, adding one or more dancing jade dancers on the basis of other jade ornaments. They are in the group of yupei or occupy the dominant position, or the subordinate position, make the group yupei more close to people's life, more have adornment meaning. Large village of the warring states period unearthed in luoyang gold of the tomb of jade carving double WuRen accessories is a outstanding WuRen replicate some full of the flavor of life, it is of great enlightenment to wek-jin and the early western han dynasty set, guangzhou south yue emperor's tomb unearthed a jade WuRen group is significantly influenced by it. Later, although the han dynasty banned the use of jade pepe, the individual dancer was popular, and the jade dancer became a unique style of peyu in the han dynasty. The jade dancers unearthed in the han tomb have one to two round holes, which are obviously used to wear peyu. In the eastern han dynasty, a jade dancer from the east han dynasty, with its vertical shoulders and delicate and smooth work, made a short tenon, which was used as a decoration. The Palace Museum's collection of a han dynasty jade seal, the printed body carved into a dancer. Both of these dancers have broken through the simple function as a decoration, indicating that the people were generally fond of the jade dancers, but as a decoration, it is still the mainstream of the function of jade dancers.
In the middle of the western han dynasty, the han empire became the most prosperous multi-ethnic country in Asia and also a peak period in the history of jade development in China. The thought of emperor wudi liu, who removed hundreds of scholars, and Confucianism, and the Confucian "noble jade", was further developed. The ethic of filial piety advocated by Confucianism promoted the widespread popularity of the burial custom, and it became the custom to bury jade. At the same time, zhang qian opened the western region, opened the channel of the jade material east, and a steady stream of yutian jade flowing into the central plains. All this has contributed to the flourishing of the jade handicraft industry. Following the development of the tools, the widespread use of hollow out, embossed, jade art more excellence, the new class and the shape of distributed, smoked in the myriad of exquisite appeared a lot of, when the warring states period began to appear in the jade WuRen greatly popular at this moment, and more xingshenjianbei, exquisite lovely, lovely. The tomb of the han dynasty in Beijing, the han tomb in yangzhou, the han tomb, and the carved jade dancers from the han tombs of anhui, shaanxi and henan are typical examples of the jade dancers in han dynasty. They are full of humanistic spirit and vivid and realistic style, with the early popular etiquette with the jade of that mysterious, bizarre, complex and common over-elaborate, rigid jade formed a strong contrast. These exquisite works have removed the original religious mystery of the ancient times and become a favorite decoration.
The jade dancers are all women with long sleeves and dancing. They are typical female characters and are professional dancers. From the beginning of summer business, women's music has become the main form of court pleasure. In the han dynasty, it was very common to go up to the court, to the rich merchants, and to keep the music of women, and to become a symbol of power and prosperity. The jade dancers were unearthed in the tombs of the relatives of the princes, which is the explanation for the enjoyment of the aristocracy. Special training at the same time, the society also emerge in the female of body, early writing unearthed in changsha a recognized on the lacquer painting, real depict the vivid scene of aristocratic family of training maiko, they dance with the sleeve dance, "" seven dish dance", towel dance and so on, the jade WuRen is based on the modelling of the dance. Despite the humble social status of women, their superb dance skills have greatly promoted the prosperity of Chinese contemporary dance art. And look at the small rotating jade WuRen, long sleeves waving, waist twist, show skirt drag ground, facial features delicate and pretty, the most vividly in a flash, and song and dance at a smart mei-yu, recreates the han dynasty dance art charm. The aesthetic taste and magic skills of the jade masters are amazing. Of huainan city in anhui province unearthed jade WuRen, writing is a distinctive, YuGong with unique conception and simple cutting, and carving out a head become warped, charming attitude, long sleeve dance WuRen image, full of reiki.
On the basis of inheriting the exquisite dexterity of the warring states, han yu showed a new face, which was mainly manifested in the more general application of hollow art and the more advanced technique of line carving. Empty line carve jade WuRen mostly flat floor, engraved look technique is quite mature, the YuGong if using a broken if continue to "jump knife method", by hand carved Yin line, fine line so weak, bending degree, the composition is very accurate. From WuRen carve, we can see the balance spring in han dynasty carved has reached the degree of fine elegant, as in gao Ming said: "the han Chinese, miao in double, grinding method of indirect flow, in the curious, no more density not divide evenly, handover interruption. It is as white as a thread, without a trace.
The jade carving art, although in the western han dynasty, although a small number, but it reflects the han dynasty made jade craftsmanship. The carved jade dancer from the tomb of the king of south yue in guangzhou is a rare and rare piece of work. The dance head is in a bun, and the long sleeve is light and comfortable. The dance is a graceful and graceful image.
The early stage of the western han dynasty have a double and two kinds of jade WuRen solo dance, security city always in henan county in Shanxi Province unearthed jade WuRen conjoined, writing for a double dance, two people connected to skill up, hang hand showing, and sophisticated chic. After the middle of the western han dynasty, more and more people, more compact, more concentrated, easy to wear and play. The dancers have the same double-sided ornamentation, which has no pros and cons, which is the need for the swing of a piece, and can be viewed on both sides.
With the fall of the han dynasty, the image of the jade dancer became rare and even extinct, and became a typical category in the han dynasty, especially in the han dynasty. In the wei, jin and southern and northern dynasties, the production and use of jade was turned down sharply, and there was a great depression in history. Investigate its reason, on the one hand, is the rise of metaphysics and Buddhism, in its impact, worship jade culture has been hit hard, more important is the war is frequent, land division, economic dislocation, hit jade handicraft industry. In order to reduce the economic burden, the ruling class also began to restrict the production and use of precious jade. Cao cao, in his deathbed order, told him, "the world is not settled yet, and at the end of the day... Collect in time, no treasure of treasure. Especially the jade road is blocked, jade material source block, directly affect the development of jade.
The tang dynasty is after 300 years after the division of reunification of huaxia great empire prosperity, the ancient worship jade tradition, in the glorious age of tang poetry time to sprout and rapid development, prosperity in the emergence of a new situation. The function and shape of the jade ware also changed greatly, and the image of the jade dancer no longer appeared in han dynasty. The tang people with plump, rich state is fashionable, that thin, lightsome can be the zhao feiyan style that can make the dance is not to be liked.
The jade dancer, with its unique historical and artistic value, is sought by collectors as a rare breed, and its market price is also rising. People are more eager to learn about this aspect of appreciation and discrimination. Jade WuRen warring states and han dynasty jade WuRen main difference is that the former attaches great importance to the carver's subtle delicate and WuRen gorgeous and moving, while the latter focus on overall shape, has large WuRen dancing, exaggerated vivid action, shows the characteristics of the han dynasty art guileless concise. What is particularly noteworthy is: long sleeve folding waist; Outline the face and lines with a simple, black line. The contour of the dancer is engraved with a fine line and engraved with the "" ornamentation is the key point to identify the jade dancers in the han dynasty. In particular, there is an important mark of "" ornamentation and thin lines on the edge of the outline, and the thick and deep lines are not genuine.
Dance is one of the earliest art form human, its connotation and function of different development and change with The Times, in the ancient Chinese culture is "emperor joon has eight people, is beginning to dance" beast "of giving the stone rate dance" and other relevant original dance. We have seen the earliest written word "dance" in the oracle of shang dynasty. It depicts the image of a man dancing with the tail of a cow and the feathers of a bird. In qinghai, the type of pottery of the horse jiayao type of pottery and porcelain, the style of the early collective dance is reproduced. The elegant system developed in the early western zhou dynasty marked the mature stage of music dance culture. During the spring and autumn period and the warring states period, the warring states, the warring states, the "rites of death", the folk dance was booming, and the performance dance had a new development. The emergence of a large number of professional song-and-dance artists has become an important force in promoting the development of song and dance art. The main reason for the existence and growth of this team is the pursuit of the dominant class. The famous "chu dance" is the beauty of the waist, the narrow waist becomes the fashion of aesthetics for a moment, so that there is the phenomenon of "the king of chu ling, the hungry people in the country". This aesthetic has been extended to the han dynasty, and slim and slim is the pursuit of women in the han dynasty.
In succession on the basis of the former generation of dance art, and through to the western dance exchange absorption, han dynasty the Chinese classical dance to a new level, which laid a foundation for the later development of Chinese dance. Comprehensive large-scale dance, acrobatics, and many people dance, double dance in the form of dance is very popular, and accompaniment of the team and all kinds of instrument display props, rich and colorful, is spectacular. Song and dance have become a common demand in people's lives, not only women, but also men, singing and dancing are common. The "horse step" and "lunges" have been passed down to this day. A pair of double dancing on a han dynasty stone, simple and vigorous. This image is almost indistinguishable from contemporary dance.
It is worth mentioning the names of the han dynasty has left many outstanding dance artist, one of the most famous was pushing for her superb dancing han into beloved emperor "yue swallow", to learn singing and dancing, zhao swallow. It is said that she is "light and graceful, capable of dancing". Henan zhengzhou the dancer on the unearthed han brick if it is this light body yan dance image, particularly interesting picture of the left upper corner of the brick carving a swallow, understand that to show the theme of it. In addition to zhao feiyan, gaozu's wife, qi, "the dance of the waist, the song out of the song". Wu di's pet li, "the beautiful dance" and so on, are all famous dancers. It is not difficult to infer the reason why the jade dancers were popular in the han dynasty.
The love and support of singing and dancing in the upper class of the ruling class was an important reason for the flourishing of dance in the han dynasty. History records, high-impedance liu bang on his way home after quelled huainan Wang Yingbu rebellion, a banquet in his hometown of pei palace, convened villagers drinking, and blow up personally, singing the "wind song", which he wrote himself. She rose to dance in the song, and she wept with emotion. The royal princes were infatuated with the singing and dancing, and the concubines themselves were masters of dancing, which undoubtedly played a great role in promoting the dance of the han dynasty.
There are two important characteristics of the dance in the han dynasty: the first is "dance sleeve", the old saying "long sleeve good dance", so the ancient people's appreciation and love of the sleeve. The use of props for dancing is one of the characteristics of traditional Chinese dance. In the han dynasty, the dance is almost always performed with long sleeves, and the dance sleeves are flowing freely, such as flowing water and flowing water. The development of dance sleeve art has greatly enriched the performance function of traditional dance in China. "Towel dance" is a lengthened dance sleeve, which makes it more varied and expressive. In addition to "dancing sleeve", another feature is "dancing waist". The waist is the pivotal position of the person, its writhing change, both dance to the upper body, and then the lower limb, make the movement forward and backward, the left and right fold, rich and changeable, graceful. The "dance waist" movement requires the dancer to develop a soft work, and it is not easy to be "flexible and without bones". "Cuffed sleeves" and "folding waist" are the typical cutting-edge techniques in the dance technique at that time. They form a beautiful dance, which has been passed down to the present day. And see the picture stone of a small waist woman is making big action dance sleeve twist waist performance, the action is exaggerated, the form god is both ready. The jade dancers unearthed in this article have reproduced the charm of the time. Some of these dancers are sophisticated, some are rough and simple, but they are both important features of the dance sleeve and the waist.
Lasted 2000 years in the past, things change, the han dynasty dance art image data is rare, able to see it today, thanks to preserve the heritage, we from the grave fresco, the han dynasty lacquer ware, in the han dynasty figurines of people and other physical carrier can still see the elegant demeanour and transfer of information. And the unique production of jade WuRen this particular era, with its bright and clean, neat, elegant, vivid image, and the composition of the durable immortal hang down to later generations, for China's jade culture and dance culture research provides a irreplaceable physical data. At the same time, it also leaves behind a long time, exquisite, unique art collection appreciation of the world.