"By public thirteen years, zuo" : "the event, in si and si, si hold Fan, Dijon by Shen, large sections of the gods." "Si" is the sacrificial ceremony, the sacrificial and the sacrificial offerings, mainly is the worship day, ancestor worship. "Rong" is the military, and here refers to the former sacrifice society (the society is the earth god, in a broad sense, the earth god and the worship of the god of the earth, the day and the worship of the community). "Fan" and "Shen", respectively is the ancestor worship and the club's offerings, Fan is cooked meat offerings, Shen for raw meat offerings. In a complete sacrifice, not just someone to worship and prayer to god, god should also include communication with people, so in the last sacrifice meter range, special arranged the pick up of the content of the share offering, that is the so-called "hold Fan" and "Shen". Because it is god's word to the sacrificial people, of course it is the "god's big day". As to whether in the form of a kind of specific in the cult to "hold Fan" and "Shen", sacrifice must respectfully, fairly didn't get down.
Cattle, sheep, pigs and horses were among the earliest domesticated animals, and the most closely related to people. However, the most important function of Yin zhou is not to eat, but to "sacrifice" and "rong".
"Turning left, min gong" : "handsome teacher, appointed to temple, to be in the community." The left temple, the right, the generals, the generals and soldiers, first "ordered at the temple", is in the ancestral temple to worship the day, ancestor worship, to obtain the ancestors of the gods, to declare their political legitimacy. In the end of the society, the people will share the sacrifice. "By Shen" is receive bless, to proclaim god communication and connection with people, both to show that sacrifice people to sacrifice to object to the heart of the letter, and reveals the ritual objects to sacrifice to the blessing of people pray for help.
Weeks argue that exists in the nature of god, and only one ghost, and many other gods, so also is in heaven and earth, mountains and rivers, shrines, ancestors, and to build houses, spring the autumn harvest, conquering the funeral, and so on a wide variety of ritual activities, and weeks of ritual activities also compared with the much more complicated and systematic. It can be said that the sacrificial ceremony is the most important and the most sacred priority in the national political life of the Yin zhou period.
Why do you want to say something about the sacrifice here? Because in week people sacrifice etiquette, (in addition to early man perishes) a large amount of, the main offerings are cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, which also has more important fete ritual vessels, which is decorated with the image of the cattle, sheep, pigs, horses bronzes and jades. Because of the close relationship with people, and related to the sacrificial ceremony, in the western zhou dynasty bronze ware and jade, the image and ornamentation of cattle, sheep, pigs, horses are also very carefully and carefully reflected. In the neolithic period, it was found that cattle, sheep and pigs were buried. After the death of the western zhou dynasty, the sacrificial rites of the zhou people were carried on, and the bronze wares and jade articles of different grades were chosen for the burial, while the jade cattle, sheep, pigs and horses were the high grades of the funeral products.
Yuniu (figure 1) is 9.4 cm long, 4.8 cm wide and 5.7 cm high. The round nose, round nose, wide mouth, a pair of thick curved horns on the head, the lower part of the horn, the body of the body and limbs, the body of the long arc roll cloud. The pattern specification, the knife skilled, the shape solemn and elegant, should belong to the sacrificial rites.
In 1976, a stone ox was unearthed in the tomb of the Yin ruins, which is smaller than this one and similar in shape. Stone cattle submandibular engraved with the inscription "SiXin" word (" xin "is after the death of fu hao temple), all this in numerous artifacts unearthed from the tomb of fu hao, presumably, is likely to be dealer Wang Wuding, visible this stone cow grades of high, position. (five other unearthed artifacts are inscribed with the word "smother xin", which belongs to the elders.)
The zhou people basically inherited the tradition of the shang people to pay attention to sacrifice and divination, and when the king of wu, he even imitated the people's sacrifice and death. Although there were still some sacrifices and martyrs in the early western zhou dynasty, the number and scale were much smaller than that of the Yin people. The western zhou sacrificial sacrifice is mainly to use the sacrifice, divide into the prison and the little prison, the great prison sacrifice is the cow, the sheep, the pig, with the ox primarily, the low prison sacrifice is the sheep, the pig, mainly sheep. According to the book of rites and Kings, "the cattle of heaven, the horns of the horned flesh; The cow of the temple, the corner grip; Guests' cattle, square feet." It can be seen that the sacrifice of the zhou dynasty was made of oxen, and the sacrifice of cattle was also graded. In the face of the ceremonious and various sacrificial activities, zhou dai established the "niu ren", which is dedicated to the application of the cattle in the national sacrifice, military service and other aspects.
The western zhou dynasty also made divination as an important means of national governance, and almost all the important things were divined. In shaanxi province in 1956 changan Zhang Gupo western zhou dynasty burial site, found an engraved with two lines of the residual bone, known as the Chinese archaeological history of the first slice of the zhou dynasty lettering oracle bones, the lettering, is made from cow's shoulder blades. So far, in the western zhou Zhang Gupo graveyard, especially in the zones zhouyuan site has a lot of western zhou dynasty unearthed in shaanxi province of divination oracle bones, the armour is the tortoise shell, while most of the bone bone, mainly cattle at the Withers.
Some people think that there was a cattle car in the era of yao and shun. It is said that the merchant's ancestor, wang hai, had mastered the art of "taking cow" and invented the oxcart. In the western zhou dynasty, the function of the ox was first sacrificed, followed by divination, the third bullock cart, and the last beef. As for the widespread use of a significant amount of cattle, it will have to wait until the eastern zhou dynasty.
The jade bull (FIG.2) is 14 cm long, 4.2 centimeters wide and 6.7 centimeters high. Round eagle, standing posture, large size, strong limbs. Bull's eyes, round nose, wide mouth, curved horns on the head. The body is decorated with the cloud pattern, the hook removes the knife method, pure and accurate, long curve arc, graceful and fluent. The proportion of this device is coordinated, the form is strong, the god is finished, should belong to sacrificial rites.
The sacrificial function of ox or cow grain jade is highly valued in zhou dynasty, and it is also an important category for the burial of princes and nobles. Since 1990, for example, in the western zhou dynasty village ridge on henan sanmenxia sphere of monarch and his wife's tomb, tomb excavation such as cleaning, namely the jade unearthed more than 10 pieces of cow shape, round, flake, stand or lie, first, all cattle, cattle image piao zhuo, excellent quality of the jade, knife work skillfully.
The jade ornament (FIG.3) is 6.5 cm long, 5.5 cm wide and 0.3 cm thick. Courtier double eye, garlic nose, wide mouth, two small earrings with a roll of cloud, a pair of horn head erect. Cut in the middle of the ox horn, beak, round eyes, spread wings. This device is symmetrical and coordinated, and it is very clear that the contrast of the blade is delicate and delicate, and the contrast between the broad and narrow lines is very bright. Both the ox and yan are prominent in their round eyes, and they are very energetic. The contrast between the bull's big mouth and the sharp beak of the swallow is also interesting. The eyes of the ox and the edge of the two sides of the cow's nose and the two sides of the two sides of the same line are used to remove the Yin line.
Yuyang (figure 4) is 8 cm long, 3.3 cm wide and 5 cm high. The round nose, wide mouth, a pair of sheep horns hover around the head of the sheep, the small tail pendulous, the limbs bend down. The body is decorated with cloud pattern, "children" shape, horseshoe pattern, as well as the indented curving line pattern, the layout is neat, the pattern is solemn, the line is graceful, the knife is exquisite. As a whole, the jade sheep is round and fat, and the expression is gentle and beautiful. It should be a sacrificial organ.
"The sanzi jing" yue: "the sheep is born, know kneeling milk", is to say sheep nature is tame. The sanzi jing also said: "the beginning of man, the good of nature", and "good" from the sheep. "To say the words", "mei, gan also. From sheep, from big." It is said that the sheep are beautiful, and the ancients used the sheep as a symbol of beauty and goodness. "To say the words," also said: "sheep, xiang also." Qin and han jinshi also often wrote "auspicious" writing "ji Yang", so the sheep is also a symbol of auspicious imagery.
Therefore, we can surmise that the zhou people value sheep to express good and good fortune, and then select sheep as an important sacrifice in sacrificial ceremony.
The jade sheep (figure 5) is 7 centimeters long, 3.4 centimeters wide and 5.7 centimeters high. The round carving, lying down, looking back, increased the change and appreciation. The big eyes, round nose, wide mouth, double ram horns are circled at the bottom of the sheep. The horn is decorated with a "c" shape, and a "green" pattern. The sheep body is decorated with moire, "er", horseshoe. The legs lie down, the feet of the sheep. The long arc curve is graceful and solemn, and the sword work is natural. God is good and beautiful. It should be a sacrificial sacrificial vessel.
Jade ornament (FIG. 6) is 13 cm long, 8.3 cm wide and 1.2 cm thick. The pig's eyes are shaped like a bow, and the mouth of the pig is represented by a perforation. The fat head, big ears, small tail, and four legs, and four claws. The body is decorated with long arcs of cloud, finely carved, flowers, just like the rural folk paintings of shaanxi county, the decorative art of decorative arts.
The jade pig (figure 7) is 7.1 cm long, 2.8 cm wide and 0.4 cm thick. Rhomboid pig's eye, mouth slightly open, pig ear hind, nose of pig nose, there are three thin lines on the nose to show wrinkles, small tail droop, rear buttocks have a perforation, single side drill, horseshoe shape. The limbs are lying on the stomach, the feet are carved, the body is decorated with the cloud pattern, the "s" shape. This tool is simple, the decoration is simple, qin brown and white, the young pig image is vivid.
It is said that there is archaeological evidence to confirm that the magnetic mountain culture ancestors began to raise pigs about seven thousand years ago, accumulating experience of raising pigs, and also gradually taking place to bury the pig as a sacrifice. Give priority to with pig mandibular burials, ash pit in the majority with young pigs, these specially set up animal burial pit often with the surrounding site, the tombs and other sites, which has a certain religious significance.
During the sacrificial activities in the western zhou dynasty, pigs were used as an important sacrificial offering to the ancestors of heaven and earth. After thousands of years of changes, the pig finally stood out and became the only protagonist of the large sacrificial offerings throughout China, and it was established to this day.
The jade horse (FIG.8) is 12.8 cm long, 5.9 cm wide and 0.5 cm thick. The triangle is big, the mouth opens, the horse ears erect, the neck has a perforation, a row of ribs shows the mane, the limbs are thick, the tail of the horse is swinging. It is characterized by a broad slope arc, which is composed of the limbs and the mandible. The proportion of the head of jade horse is exaggerated, the whole line is beautiful, the decoration is simple and clever.
Why is it that there is no horse in front of the big prison and the little prison? At that time horses were different from cattle, sheep and pigs.
First of all, in the western zhou dynasty, there was a complete system of horses and horses, and the horses became the main means of the royal aristocracy, and showed different levels of identity. From the king of zhou to the various hou and the doctor, the identity is different in the chariot horse structure, the number of horses, the shape and decoration of the vehicle horse, and so on.
Secondly, the western zhou dynasty in more frequently, and war chariots and horses are the most important military supplies, military strength size basically see the number of horses and chariots, so a lot of horses made important contributions for the military campaign.
Third, the horse of course also has the function of the sacrifice, mainly after the owner's death after the horse and horse for his funeral, mostly in the main tomb near the funeral of the pit. Since 1959, there have been 18 traffic horse pits in the fengxi site of chang 'an zhangjiagou in shaanxi province, all of which belong to the western zhou dynasty. For example one CheMaKeng has four riding horse fighting with si and ride two horses to ride with YaoChe each one, opposite the horses were lying in front of his car six horse horse straight line is curved, obviously is executed by people after placing buy in some way by human. Again for example henan sanmenxia comely CheMaKeng museum, the museum of western zhou dynasty monarch GuoJi tomb buried sphere CheMaKeng, Mrs GuoJi Liang Ji tomb buried CheMaKeng and sphere of prince's tomb buried CheMaKeng. Among them, there were 13 funeral cars in the tomb of guo ji, 13 horses and 64 horses, and the real horse was buried with the marching army queue, which constituted an unprecedented and spectacular underground chariot and horse army.