China is an important producer of jade in the world. It not only has a long history of mining, but also has a wide geographical distribution and vast reserves. According to Shanhai Jing, there are more than 200 places where jade is produced in China. Some famous jade mines are still being mined, which provide a continuous source of raw materials for the development of Chinese jade carving art. The most famous jade in China is Hetian Jade in Xinjiang. It is also known as Dushan Jade in Henan Province, Xiuyan Jade in Liaoning Province and Turquoise in Hubei Province.
I. Hetian Jade
Hetian Jade is distributed in Shadong - Tashkurgan, Hetian - Yutian, Xinjiang, and the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains stretches 1500 kilometers in Moxian County. The mineral composition of Hetian Jade is mainly tremolite-actinolite, and contains trace diopside, serpentine, graphite, magnetite and so on. Form white, turquoise, black, yellow and other different colors. Jade is translucent, polished and lustrous, with a hardness of 5.5-6.5 degrees. Hetian Jade is found in rocks at an altitude of 3500-5000 meters. Jade blocks collected in the riverbed are called seed jades, and mountain materials are mined in the strata. The economic value of Hetian Jade is based on the purity of color and texture. Its main varieties are: sheep fat white jade, white jade, cyan white jade, cyan jade, topaz, sugar jade, ink jade.
Duyu mining area is located in Dushan, also known as Nanyang Jade, in the northern suburbs of Nanyang City. Duyu is plagioclase-like jadeite with fine and pure texture, grease or glass luster, good polishing performance, transparent and more than three tones composed of multi-color jadeite, bright color, hardness greater than 6.5. Varieties are mainly white, green, green, white, purple, topaz, lotus ruby, ink and miscellaneous jade. Duyu mining has a long history, Shaanxi God. The Neolithic Longshan Culture Jade Axe unearthed by Mushimao and the Yuan Dynasty "Dushan Dayuhai" now displayed in Beijing Beihai Park Group City are all made of Duyu. Duyu's mining in the Han Dynasty has a considerable scale. So far, there are more than 1,000 ancient mining pits in Dushan, Nanyang. It can be seen that Duyu's mining history is long and its scale is prosperous. The abundance of categories can still form large-scale production up to now.
Xiuyu is named for its main origin in Xiuyan County, Liaoning Province. Xiuyu was formed in metamorphic marble of mafic carbonate rocks. There are many deposits of this kind of jade in China. Xiuyu is green, yellow-green, and light white in appearance, translucent, waxy luster after polishing, and its hardness is 3.5-5 degrees. Jade materials used in the Neolithic Hongshan Culture were produced in Xiuyan County in Xiuyugou, commonly known as old jade, which is tremolite nephrite. Most of the jade unearthed from Fuhao Tomb in Shang Dynasty is similar to Xiuyan Wagou Mineral Xiuyu. Xiuyu mining in Wagou Mine has a long history and abundant reserves. At present, Xiuyu is the main jade-producing area in China, and its output accounts for about 60% of the country's total.
Turquoise is one of the ancient jades, which has been known as a mystery in ancient Egypt. There are 20 turquoise beads unearthed in Yongjing, Gansu Province, 3800 years ago. Ancient turquoise is called oxide cryptocrystalline block of copper as "Jingzhou Stone" or "Xiangyang Dianzi". Or nodules, different shades of blue, green and other colors, often containing iron wire, hardness of 5-6, waxy luster. Hubei produces high-quality turquoise, which is well-known both at home and abroad. Its handicraft is very popular among the people and sells well all over the world. From the mineralogical point of view, the chemical composition of jade is silicate, in which nephrite is mostly calcium silicate and jadeite is sodium silicate, but turquoise is not silicide, is phosphide, is a completely hydrated compound of copper phosphate and aluminium phosphate.