Since ancient times, the Chinese nation has paid homage to jade. We respect jade, the first is in the spirit. The ancients had discovered for thousands of years that a piece of American stone, whether it was held in the hand or the eye worn on it, was followed by a spiritual force.
The second is to raise the jade to a higher level morally. We say that "jade has five virtues", benevolence, righteousness, wisdom, courage, jie, deeply rooted in the hearts of the people, unchanged. It is said that "it is better to die than to die." it is the character of man and the highest character.
Therefore, the ancients earnestly exhorted: the gentleman without reason, jade does not go to the body."
- ma did not
The essence of jade is beautiful stone.
American stone is jade, the essence of jade is beautiful stone. The Chinese people have a broad conception of jade, so there will be a lot of problems today. For example, is it jade? According to today's strict standard, it cannot be called jade, but from an ancient point of view, it is a piece of jade.
Knowledge of jade and relevant knowledge of tian yu.
So, what is the standard of jade? The ancients have already made a summary, jade has five virtues, benevolence, righteousness, wisdom, yong, jie, is a jade's most basic standard, this standard has been affected to today. What is benevolence, righteousness, wisdom, courage and purity? How do you understand that? It feels more abstract. So, what is the appearance of jade? The most superficial thing we can see is the color. Ancient people have more records of the color of jade, red, yellow, green, blue, black and white. Today, it seems that jade does not have these colors. Who has seen the red jade, the blue jade? In fact, the ancient reference may be different from today, when the concept of jade was relatively broad. For example, the ancient saying "red jade" may be onyx, "green jade" may be turquoise, "blue jade" may be lapis lazuli. Today, the color of jade, relatively speaking, is limited to a range, the first white jade, green jade, topaz, including green white jade, is between blue and white; And the jade and the jade; There are also flower jade, which is a piece of jade with a variety of colors.
Hetian jade is the highest grade jade.
To know that what is hetian jade, you need to know the origin of the jade first. How many places are there in China? There are at least a few hundred or even thousands of places where Chinese jade is well documented. Let's take a look at some of the main points.
Xinjiang and tian tian. Xinjiang hetian jade is the highest grade jade. Most of the jade in the court during the qianlong period came from hetian areas, such as furnishings, utensils, jade brands, and so on. In the history of China, many jade, han dynasty jade, and many fine jade from the tang and song dynasties were produced from this place.
The geographical location of xinjiang and tian tian is very high, and the weather conditions are bad, and the period of mining can be three or four months in a year, which is very short. I also saw a documentary about how to mine and jade. Hetian jade has two sources, one is the so-called mountain material, one is the so-called seed material. "Seed" is a popular term for stone seeds. The seed that we often come into contact with is relatively small, actually have very big also known as seed material. The seed material is originally the mountain material, because of the change of the earth's crust or some geological disasters, the mountain material collapse into the riverbed, through the river water 100 million years of erosion, the edges and corners are worn away. Because the water has moisture, the seed is usually warm and smooth, shining.
The jade that is mined directly from the mountains is the mountain. The mountain has not been washed by the river for a long time, so in general, the quality of the seed is higher than that of the mountain. But this is not absolute, it is not to say that the seed will be better than the mountain, and indeed there are very good mountain materials. Hill makings can produce large size materials, such as the representative of the yuan dynasty jade to blaspheme Alexander jade sea, and the qing dynasty of dayu harnessing of yushan son, are made of two pieces of big hetian jade carved in xinjiang.
The highest level in hetian jade, today it is called the sheep fat jade. You can imagine what it looks like when you say it. Sheep fat is the goat oil, today can see the opportunity of the sheep oil is not a lot of, has not eaten animal oil now. In the past, people used to use animal oil, such as "lard white". When I was a child, I used to boil the oil and feel the oil. Today's young people may not be able to see animal oil.
Then, after the fatter sheep were slaughtered, the fat part of the sheep showed up, which was a feeling of the best of hetian white jade. Hence the name "sheep fat jade". Because of the large number of sheep breeding in xinjiang, such a comparison can be made. One of the typical characteristics of a goat is that it is very oily, which must be found on its own. There is a degree of whiteness in the lipid jade, which is not the same white color, and its color changes from very white to cyan.