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The basic knowledge of jade is widespread

Jade, with its fine texture, exquisite and exquisite, has been popular since ancient times.
Jade has the curative effect such as the heat, the soft rib, the soul, the blood pulse, the eyes and ears. Jade can raise people, and people can keep jade.
The basic knowledge of jade is widespread.

Natural jade carving collectibles Chinese Kunlun jade nephrite
The standard of appraisal of jade generally has the following:
One is to look at the proportion of jade. The greater the proportion, the more precious the jade.
Second, the hardness of jade. The greater the hardness, the better the jade.
The third is the color of jade. The red is the patek, the green is green. The patek and green are full of can be called gem. Of course, it is also an aspect.
Four is the sound of jade. The best is the best, but the dumb is poor.
Five is to see the work. As the saying goes, "gold is priceless. This sentence is not scientific. All the jade is on the weight, on the cube purchase. It is the combination of art that determines its price.
Six is the time to look at jade. Jade has the distinction of ancient jade and modern jade. Ancient jade is a cultural relic. Modern jade is a work of art. A piece of ancient jade, the value can join the city.
It is called "the four famous jade" of China, which is the "dushan jade" produced by xinjiang, the "dushan jade" produced by nanyang of henan province, and "xiuyu" produced by shaanxi lantian jade and xiuyan county in liaoning province.
Hetian jade
There are three types of production:
Wang yu: (1) pick from the river of jade, it is the original stone after denudation, erosion to the water system of the boulder, the jade pieces, large pieces of little, quality is good, head, colour and lustre is clean, including common suet jade wang appears.
(2) mountain water jade: soft jade transported by glaciers and floods, characterized by large lumps and smooth surface.
(3) mountain jade: refers to the original jade that is extracted directly from the jade mine.
Dushan jade
Complex and varied colors, on jade distribution of two: one is the colorful mutual crisscross and desultorily, another kind is roughly parallel banded exhibition city, and there are hue, show the relationship between the gradient to show on the concentration. Its texture is similar to soft jade and jadeite, with strong and delicate properties. Its transparency can be seen from translucent and transparent to opaque.
Kai yu
The name is first seen in the book of han, geography, and the jade is produced in the "blue tian shan mountain" in Beijing north (now north of xi 'an). Later, the book "the han dynasty," zhang heng "xijing fu", "guang ya", "shui jing zhu" and "yuanhe county" and other ancient books, all have the records of the blue field jade. During the reign of Ming wanli, song yingxing said in "heavenly work" : "the so-called blue fields, namely the green mountains (kunlun mountains), the name of the jade, and then the mistaken belief that the blue field of xi 'an." Since then, the world has been divided, some say that the blue field does not produce jade at all, some say that even if the jade may be laiyu (the jade of green like vegetable leaf). In recent years, the shaanxi geological workers have discovered the serpentine marble jade in lam tin, which is considered to be the ancient record of the blue tian yu (People's Daily on November 23, 1978). The discovery not only attracted the attention of the geological community, but also aroused the interest of archaeologists. In 1982, the geological museum of geology and mineral resources exhibited the original stone of the above blue field jade. When the serpentine is strong, the local area has become the same jade as the jade. Jade from the appearance, there are yellow, light green and other uneven tone, and with a light white marble. The jade is not very beautiful, but because it is located near the ancient city of xi 'an, the hardness of the jade is around 4 and is easy to be processed, so it is possible for the ancients to use it as an ornament. In the han dynasty, two pieces of jade are very similar to the present one. One is a large jade shop which was unearthed near the mausoleum of mausoleum in the han dynasty in shaanxi province. The other is the han dynasty yupei from the Palace Museum. From these two pieces of jade and the color of the jade, many geologists think similar to the present blue tian jade. But whether it is really ancient blue tin jade, it needs to be further examined.
Now it is the name of the total process of Chinese ophiolite jade. In the broad sense, xiuyu includes the xiuyan jade in liaoning, xiuyu in southern guangdong, xiuyu in sichuan, kunlun jade in xinjiang, and xiuyu in the Ming tombs of Beijing. In the narrow sense, xiuyu refers to xiuyan jade in liaoning xiuyan county. It has a variety of colors, but is common in white and light green. It has a hardness of 2. 5-4. 5; The proportion of 2. Five or so; Oil sheen or waxy luster; Translucent to opaque, also very few is transparent, and organic glass is similar.
There are 10 main types of xiuyu in China:
(1) xiuyan jade: it is a dense mass composed of fibrous serpentine and serpentine, with no more than 10 colors. Liaoning xiuyan county is the main producing area of xiuyu in China.
(2) xiuyu in the south: "southern jade" for short, the main producing area is xinyi county, guangdong province, so it is also called "xinyi jade". It is a dark green to light green dense block of serpentine. Because of its beautiful green patterns, it is suitable for large jade carvings.
(3) jiuquan xiuyu: "jiuquan jade" or "qilianyu" is a dark green, dense, and dense, serpentine rock with black spots and irregular black masses.
(4) lu chuan jade: short for "lu chuan yu", it is a dense block of serpentine with black spots on the yellow-green basement. The origin is in luchuan county, guangxi.
(5) kunlun jade: short for "kunlun jade", jade is very similar to xiuyan jade in liaoning. The origin is in the kunlun mountain foothills of xinjiang.
(6) caving jade: short for "meeting liyu", is a kind of dark green block of serpentine appearance resembling jasper. It is located in huili county, sichuan province.
(7) yunnan xiuyu: it is a kind of green, massive serpentine, often containing chlorite.
(8) junan jade: short for "ju nanyu", it is a kind of black and green, massive serpentine rock, which is produced in junan county, shandong province.
(9) Beijing huang xiuyu: for short, it is a yellow, yellowish or lemon yellow serpentine rock, which is located in the Ming tombs of the Ming tombs in Beijing.
(10) all orchid jade: it is a kind of block snake with bamboo leaf pattern, so it is also known as "bamboo leaf jade", which is made in the county of dulan, qinghai province.
Jadeite hardness is 7, proportion 3.33. Mineral refractive index: Ng=1.667, Np=1.654; The refraction rate is 0.012.
Common jade color is white, ash, powder, light brown, green, green, green, purple and so on, most opaque, individual translucent, have vitreous luster. Divide by color and texture, lime green, brilliant green, Ms. Huang green, green YangQiao, glass green, parrot green, spinach green, shallow green, shallow green, green frog skin, green, plum green, blue, green, gray green, clumps, and violet and lotus root starch, such as more than 20 varieties.
There are many factors affecting the quality of jadeite, including color, texture (structure), transparency (water head), fissure, impurity, etc. The factors that affect the jade finished products include processing technology. In the jade trade, texture and always referred to as "kind of" transparency, texture (structure) refers to the mineral composition of the particles size and particle size of coarse, medium and fine, including glass, glaze ice, bean, dry, etc. Transparency (water head) is the degree of transparency. Color refers to the intensity of color, Yang, zheng, and degree.
Is traditionally the categorization of jade carefully, too complicated, in theory, conceptual debate, so we are on the basis of practice, the paper summarizes the influencing factors on the quality of the jade, the jade is divided into: old pit, there is a colorless, egg white, dry cleaning, bean species (lotus), gold, oil water green, cyanine, blue, horse tooth, fei, fourteen characteristics such as spring, blue flower, black type.
The old pit types:
Old pit color accords with the requirement of thick, Yang, positive, and, the color is thick green, the distribution is even, thick bright and bright. The texture is finer and more transparent. If glass ground, add thick, Yang, positive, and the color, will make jade color to feel better, bright and dazzing, this breed is called old pit glass kind (extreme goods). Old pit glass seed production is rare, buy old pit glass wool material, generally need 1 million ~ 3 million yuan/public two.
A colorless:
A colorless is the color of a small color, light or colorless, transparent or translucent, fine texture of jade. Only individual fibrous hard jade minerals are visible to the naked eye. There are no impurities, cotton-locks, and less stone flowers, and the sound is as clear as metal. Under polarized light microscopy is a fibrous blastic structure.
If raw material is big enough, is generally used to make bracelets, bracelets show is crystal clear, clear well water, large blocks of scarce, belongs to high-grade, finished product price is in commonly 50000 ~ 150000 yuan or so.
Hibiscus is like hibiscus flowers, the fragrance is light and long, the color of the lotus is light green, the color of the naked eye is pure and not evil, no yellow tones. Translucent or transparent, the quality of the jade is exquisite, feel under 10 x magnifying glass particles, but couldn't find the line, this is because in the late formation of recrystallization as a result, can be said to belong to the egg whites to, though not very thoroughly, but nothing; Although not strong enough, but light, similar to the Chinese uranium jade.
Furong seed production is larger, more easy to see, in southern China is very popular, the price is in the south expensive in the north, belong to the middle class, the price is not very high in general. If there is a deep green vein on hibiscus jade, it is called "hibiscus green root", such as this kind of high-grade goods, the price is high.
Stem green types:
Divided into two kinds: one kind is refers to the pure sodium chrome pyroxene, another except sodium chrome pyroxene, still contain jadeite, amphibole, etc., specific gravity 3.3, this kind of emerald green colored strong and pure, transparency is poor, foundation, in the sunshine illuminate, don't go in light, with a condenser torch light, only in the light of 1 mm. This jade expected, the quality of the jade coarser, mineral grains form a short columnar, under a microscope for the whole crystal semicircle granular As white as snow, able to bear or endure look bright green, green is irregular, show porphyritic or crumb. Under 10X magnifying glass, its texture is delicate, often fibrous structure, most opaque.
The green and white color of the white ground is clear, the base color is generally white, the green is bright, although the water head is not good, but also have many young women to buy. The white ground green species is suitable for making bracelets, carvings and listing. Small pendants or bracelets typically cost between $1,000 and $10,000. The price depends on the quality of the plant and the green range and color.
Cyanine types:
It is a kind of widely distributed in Burmese jade, which is divided according to the distribution pattern of color. The green distribution of flower green is veins, the distribution is dense or less, the color can be deep or shallow. Background color can be light green or colorless, texture can be coarse and fine. It can be further subdivided according to the quality, such as: the pea flower is green, the grain is thicker, it is called the bean bottom, the irregular color distribution, is the flower green. Also have the horse tooth green, oil bottom flower blue wait. If according to the color pattern distribution, also include dot flower blue, commonly known as "plum flower". The value of a flower depends on the quality of the species, as well as the range and color of the color. The market is more easy to see, more used for small pendants, is the middle and low grade, the price is several tens to several hundred yuan.
Green oil types:
Macroscopic observation: the green is darker, the color is not pure, doping gray tone or blue tone, give a person a kind of very depressing feeling. The transparency of oil green species is generally good, jade is fine, glass luster, but the surface gloss is like oily. The fibroblastic structure is seen under the microscope. The color can be from shallow to deep, if the color depth, is called "melon skin oil green"; If it is light, it is called "fresh oil green". Oil green is more readily available in the market. It is popular in the north, not very popular in the south, and the price is slightly higher in the south because of the influence of the people. The price of the ring is usually tens to hundreds of yuan.
Horse tooth types:
The texture is coarse, the minerals in the jade are white, and the transparency is poor. As the saying goes, "the water is not enough or the head is short". The naked eye looks a bit like China. Under 10X magnifying glass, it is clear that there are very fine white strips in green. Although green is green, it is not uniform and irregular. Horse teeth are rarely used to make a ring, do more to hang up, ring, etc., horse teeth in the market is easier to see, belong to the middle and low, the price is not high, tens to several hundred yuan.
It can be divided into red and yellow. Red fei secondary formed a kind of color, color is distributed in the weathering under the surface or along the jadeite original stone fracture distribution, for iron ore content and form of color and produced in Burma and Malaysia old district area. It can be divided into three types:
Bright red: also known as "corona red" for the top of the red, its color may be caused by Co3+;
Dark red: usually Fe2+ oxidized to Fe3+, much closer to the edge distribution of the original stone;
Brown red: produced on the edge of the original stone, due to the weathering and leaching of the iron stain, with a lot of brown impurities, for the red.
Bright red red patek is very rare, can meet and cannot be asked, the price is extremely high. The red and brown red patek, the yield is much, and because of the color difference, but is not popular, the price is extremely low, several yuan to several hundred yuan can be bought.
It is also due to the color of secondary action, which is often distributed under the surface of weathering, and above the red layer, it is due to limonite. Yellow is not pure, often bring brown, the yield is much, not be liked, the price is extremely low, several yuan to several dozen yuan can buy.
Purple jade, purple commonly known as the spring color, purple is generally lighter, according to purple hues different, can be divided into pink purple, eggplant purple, blue violet.
Purple: purple with a slightly pink color, texture is more delicate, translucent, internal cotton is more, when used as a background color, called "lotus root powder land".
Purple: purple with eggplant bee red, coarse texture, visible to the naked eye of its mineral grains, less transparent, with a large amount of cotton inside.
Blue and purple: blue in purple, coarse texture, mineral particles visible to the naked eye, almost opaque, with a low level of sound.
Due to the light of spring, it is very rare to make a ring. It is used in large carvings and small pendants. If the purple is deep, the texture is fine, the transparency is high is very rare, is high-grade goods, the finished product value is tens of thousands, can reach 150,000 RMB one piece, deeply loved by the europeans and americans. To avoid yellow light when choosing a spring emerald, the yellow light will deepen the purple.
Blue flower:
The color green is bluish, green and blue, it is dioptric petrifaction, the appearance of the sun is petrified. Macroscopic observation: the color evil is not positive, the transparency is poor, the texture is general, the inside has a lot of dirty black, belong to low grade jade material, several yuan to several hundred yuan can buy.
It is the inferior variety of jadeite, including taro, dog excrement, and ash, etc., with naked eyes: it is not transparent, the texture is rough, and the mineral granule is large. 10 x magnification observation: the meat of impurity is more, with the brain rock flowers, stone, color is highly, mixed with yellow, brown, grey color, such as in common on the market, is very low class, a few dollars to several dozens yuan can be bought.

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