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Jade articles in Chinese history

The unearthed data in our country proves that jade ware existed in the early neolithic age. In zhejiang hemudu neolithic culture site, the discovery of a small number of jade beads, jade tube and jade ring, etc. But the origin of Chinese jade should be earlier than this. Jade was born from the matrix of stone tools, far beyond the stone tools. Originally, it was only a small piece of jade that was used as a pendant, or as a polished stone tool, to be used to make weapons or tools.

Natural jade carving ancient Chinese jade carving collectibles
In the late neolithic age, the jade ware had carved or polished products, and the shape was larger and more complex, which could be regarded as arts and crafts. In the neolithic age, which is mainly marked by grinding stone tools, the technique of processing jade stone is the same. The technology of stone making was developed from the development to the grinding system. After thousands of years, the technology of making jade has also experienced the same process. The two may be exactly the same in terms of technology and tools, but the jade ware has other requirements besides being practical, so it is more complex than making stone tools in technical requirements. Jade is not only required to be more polished than stone stone, but also engraved patterns of various patterns, which is for people's aesthetic needs and is a non-practical art decoration. This is very rare on stone tools.
Neolithic jade, has the practical value of with his axe, jade jade, jade knife, YuGe production tools and weapons, such as ornaments with yuhuan, jade, white jade bracelets, jade huang, jade Jue, jade beads, jade tube, etc. This period jade simple simple simple, thick and different, modeling irregular. In the late stage, the jade ware gradually emerged from the stone tools and developed independently in technology and art, and laid a social and technological foundation for the development and improvement of later jade craftsmanship.
With the use of bronze or stone, and the means of production were improved a lot, social productivity was improved, the material wealth of proliferation and accumulation, prompting the emergence of the formation of class and state. The history of the first slaver state in China has not yet been fully revealed and needs to be further studied. Therefore, the situation of its jade is so far unknown, so it has to be neglected.
Slavery was extremely developed in the shang dynasty, and slaves had been put into various social production and living areas. With the development of agriculture, there is a finer division of labor within the handicraft industry. The process of making jade has been separated from the stone making and become an independent handicraft industry. At the same time, the slaves of the shang dynasty created a splendid bronze culture, and the application of bronze tools in the process of making jade made the technology of zhuoyu significantly improved, and the jade appliances gradually replaced the stone tools with bronze.
Shells jade jade with primitive society there is a clear change, the shang dynasty early erlitou culture of YuGe, tomahawk, shovel, keisuke, cong, knife, huang jade and so on, its modelling, carving, drilling, polishing, etc, have reached a quite high level. The jade carvings of people, animals and gods have been greatly increased, and there are many new breakthroughs and exquisite works. At this time, the jade has been turned into a decoration, mostly as handicrafts. Yin ruins in the seven hundred and fifty-five pieces of jade unearthed from the tomb of fu hao, decorative jade alone more than half, more than a ritual and ceremonial, tools, the sum of miscellaneous, great changes have taken place that means ShangYu social function has.
There are many kinds of jade articles in Yin ruins, which can be divided into seven categories, such as ritual, ceremonial, tools, utensils, decorations, art and miscellaneous. There are large cong, group cong, GUI, bi, ring, yuan, huang, jue, gu, dish, etc. For the purpose of ceremonial use, there are goo, spear, qi, tomahawk, knife, etc. There are axe, chisel, adze, saw, knife, spinning wheel, shovel, sickle, etc. Daily life with a mortar and pestle, comb, earwax spoon, Bi, 觽, etc; The number of ornaments is the most, with accessories, hairpin, kushiro, pendant, beads and so on. There are few works of art, and a jade dragon, two jade tigers and a strange bird are all good works of art. Miscellaneous device with, jade, jade Han chain, etc.
Jade carving is one of the important manufacturing of Yin dynasty, from the jade digging modelling design and artistic style and so on, its achievement is no less Yin dynasty bronze ware, just due to the lack of data in the past, people focus on bronze culture, and with few parallel and mutual influence of jade carving art study. Yin hui jade is an integral part of ancient Chinese cultural heritage, which fully embodies the great wisdom and creativity of the jade carving artists in the Yin dynasty. These jade wares found that not only make us to Yin generation of jade carving art has a more comprehensive understanding, but also to study China's history, art history and Yin generation of jade carving issues related to social, economic and cultural aspects all have important reference value.
Zhou dynasty was a powerful slave country after the shang dynasty, and the agriculture and handicraft industry were very developed. The zhou rulers paid attention to the lessons of the shang dynasty and put the system and measures of the slave society in order to maintain and consolidate their rule. In terms of jade, due to important laws and regulations in the rites of zhou dynasty jade is good for the ideal and the connotation, the payoff was zhou yu left the Yin dynasty jade development, to develop in the direction of ceremonial jade, and opened up a jade "dehua", "religious", a new era of "politicising", laid the later on the basis of the theory of "rites" for the study of the ancient jade.
In zhou dynasty, the wind of heavy jade was extremely high, and the sacrificial jade was used in the sacrificial ceremony. Due to the secularization and moralization of the jade articles, everyone is under the white sky. With the wide range of jade, the importance of jade, the choice of jade and the technology of making jade are all over the past. The zhou dynasty constantly improved the technique and design of zhuoyu, the processing and finishing and polishing, making the utensil more and more beautiful. In the aspect of work, in addition to inheriting the double hook line of shang dynasty, there is also a rough slope line, which often makes the outer outline of the eyes, ears, mouth, body and tail, making the shape clear and concise. The thin part multi-purpose Yin line or the parallel negative line, the comparison emphasizes on the plane of the polishing to use the negative line to highlight the contrast, the change, reduces the fluctuation level of the body. This is the characteristics of western zhou yu.
During the spring and autumn and warring states period, which lasted more than 500 years, it was widely used in production because the iron ware replaced bronze tools, which greatly promoted the development of the productive forces and affected the change of the social system. During this period, is in essence behind the collapse of slavery, the feudal system of the advanced the social change period of growth, several political and economic center, appeared in the field of culture and academic "schools of thought contend" in new situation. Qin, jin, yan, qi, chu, wu, yue, ba shu and other local cultures, competing with each other, Shared prosperity and laid a solid foundation for the growth of the Chinese national unity culture. The unearthed situation of jade ware also reflects this historical fact. Jade handicraft industry to the spring and autumn and warring states period had a turning point change, jade production exquisite and extraordinary, in the history of ancient jade written a glorious page.
In the spring and autumn in terms of its social form is a transitional period, reflected in the jade craft also has the transition color, still inherited the western zhou dynasty bronze ware in kwai dragon, phoenix and deformation or imaginary beast decorative pattern, but there has been a fabulous new style. By the time of the warring states period, the proportion of animal subjects in jade was increased, and the craftsmanship was exquisite, and the fierce character and alertness of the carnivorous animals were vividly and vividly displayed.
In the spring and autumn and warring states, there was a great variety of peyu at the time. This kind of social custom has certain effect to the development of jade craft, this is the simple and miniaturization of the jade ware, and the sword, leather belt use jade. The sword was first seen in the spring and autumn period in the warring states period and the two han dynasties, and the common jade articles in the spring and autumn period were cong, Juan, bibi, bracelet, ring, sword, etc., which were the most decorated with jade and dragon. In addition, the jade belt, the seal and various burial jade and so on.
Qin destroyed six countries and established an unprecedentedly strong centralized feudal empire. Han chengqin system, the implementation of the policy of recalculation and increase production, consolidated and developed the unified and powerful feudal state. This period unearthed jade ware, the head is huge, the carved decoration is bold, the variety is numerous, the skill is exquisite. At this time, the ruling class used jade more widely in social etiquette and daily life, and gradually formed a brand new era style. The jade carving art of the warring states period, which is famous for its delicacy, is a major breakthrough and has a great influence on the later jade.
The western han dynasty inherited the characteristics of the spring and autumn warring states. Due to the convenient transportation of donghan, soft jade from xinjiang has been flowing into zhongyuan, and zhuoyu has been further developed. Shape except jade, yuhuan, heart, sword, hook and jade cicada thereof, all sorts of "funerary wares" for human and all kinds of containers, pet products, but also for a large number of to win "" to ward off bad luck the shape, and various shape and decorative pattern has mimic myth's more, full of mystery.
In the wei, jin, southern and northern dynasties, due to the influence of the mass graves, the jade articles were rarely unearthed, so its development was not very clear. From sporadic unearthed jade jade Han, jade, jade belt hook, not much change with the han dynasty, almost difficult to identify. Some of its carver are still refined, some appear to be extensive, the jade is not as bright as the two han.
During the sui and tang dynasties, the economy was prosperous, the culture developed, and the foreign exchanges were close. Chang 'an became an international metropolis. The handicraft industry was very prosperous, and handicrafts were also an important commodity in foreign trade. However, this period jade ware unearthed very little, now know not only jade cup, wear, belt buckle, belt board, jade pin, dagon, and so on few. In the tang dynasty, jade wares and utensils were different from those in the han dynasty and the northern and southern dynasties, and there were a large number of flowers and birds, people's ornaments, and rich life breath. There are more practical cups and bowls, and there are new accessories and jade ornaments which show the rank of the official.
The southern and northern song, liao, xixia, jin and yuan dynasty jade ware developed on the basis of tang dynasty. It's been used since the song dynasty. The practical and decorative jade occupies an important position and is widely spread in the society. Compared with the ritual of sacrificial rites, it is called "plaything", and these jade articles are also highly polished. Due to the influence of the north and the south and the culture of different cultures, the jade articles reflect ethnic and local characteristics. The two song jade articles, with the dragon and phoenix design for many, because of the painting influence, so very attached to the manner. Song dynasty is not only the industrial and commercial prosperity, the trade developed, and prevalence of Taoism and neo-confucianism, which affect the jade carving, depicting the god turtle, cranes, longfeng jade carving is a reflection of the social ideological trend at that time. Xixia, liao, jin and yuan jade articles are mainly flowers, birds, tigers, deer and fish and water decorations, and they are decorated with a lot of accessories. The real thing has cup, wash, belt board and so on; The craft of birds, fish, animals and so on has increased, and the grinding of jade is integrated into the national consciousness of survival and local feeling.
The productivity of the Ming dynasty had a great development, the city handicraft industry, the commercial prosperity, the jade manufacture also quite developed. At this time the trend of jade carving is further secularization. In the Ming dynasty, neo-confucianism was rampant, Taoism and folk beliefs were deeply rooted in the people. People ask for social stability, pray for god's blessing, to achieve the prosperity of the present world. This kind of social requirement is reflected in the craft area is auspicious pattern is very popular. Ming dynasty jade of auspicious patterns such as the eight immortals, samsung fairy, long life, happy, such as text, peaches, ganoderma lucidum, plum, bamboo, orchid, deer, cranes, yuanyang, such as plants and animals, as well as dragon, phoenix, therefore the tiger, such as Angle of end benevolent different birds. Auspicious patterns sometimes become theme patterns, sometimes decorative ornaments, showing the universality and depth of auspicious patterns.
In the Ming dynasty, the tea drinking and drinking of the wind permeated, to the jade pot cup appeared, and more and more, this kind of jade carving is most rich in the sense of The Times. At the same time, after the song dynasty, the ancient style of the Ming dynasty was gradually formed, which affected the jade production. Antique jade originated in the song dynasty, prevailed in the Ming and qing dynasties, mainly with bronze ware and ancient jade to be transformed and cut into.
The art of calligraphy and painting in Ming dynasty further influenced the development and improvement of arts and crafts. At this time, the jade craft is also more or less influenced by the literati paintings, grinding and painting the landscape and poetry, the knowledge. This jade which reflects the taste of literati is not seen in the previous generation. The relationship between jade articles and social and cultural life is also becoming increasingly close. The literati painted and wrote in the study, and they often used jade stationery or jade for furnishings.
In the Ming dynasty, the ruler of the Ming dynasty established the feudal rule by using jade to mark the hierarchy. Different from the previous generation: the number of the ribbons in the official gown increased with the number of jade, and the leather belt of the emperor, the public, the hou, the emperor and the military officials were all decorated with jade plates.
The jade carving in the Ming dynasty has the style of The Times, the blade is rough and powerful, the "three layers of transmission", the carving is very delicate. Beijing, suzhou and yangzhou were the three major centers of jade carving. Song yingxing, "working in heaven", said: "the good worker, although he is a master of Beijing, is a good worker." The jade craft of suzhou was promoted as the first in China at that time, and made a historic contribution to the development and improvement of jade craft in the Ming dynasty. After the mid - Ming dynasty, the jade craft developed faster, and there appeared a number of jade masters, the most famous of lu zioka, the jade that he cut, called "zioka jade". However, in the last working procedure of grinding and fine grinding, there exists the phenomenon of "asking for no work".
The qing dynasty was the last dynasty in the feudal society of our country, which made great contribution to the formation and consolidation of the unified country of multi-nationalities. Under this historical background, the jade got unprecedented development, the formation of Chinese ancient jades history's highest peak, in the beauty of jade, fine workmanship, the shape of the yield, wide use, etc., are in the history of any a dynasty of jade cannot rival.
During the last hundred years, the production of jade in qing dynasty was extremely slow because of the difficulties in the source of jade. The work of jade in this period is similar to the late Ming dynasty. Jade qianlong era on the basis of the growth and development, from the qianlong twenty-five years to enter the heyday, after half a century, and turn to low, or even decline, with the fall of the qing dynasty, ended the history of Chinese ancient jade.


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