Culture is the crystallization of all materials, systems and spirits created by human beings. In more than 500 kinds of definition of culture, jade as a kind of important material cultural heritage, not only have extensive distribution in the earth, and the long history of thousands of years of Chinese civilization plays a different role, but also in the areas of social production, life play an important role in the history of eight thousand years of rebirth always permeate and formed enduring, extremely rich tradition of jade culture. Therefore, it can be said that the jade culture is the perfect embodiment of the jade ware, jade system and jade carving art created by human beings. It not only includes the design art, grinding and cutting technology, writing records, but also includes the value, ritual, religion and decorative function with broad essence.
As the materialization of political value in social hierarchy, jade culture has become the carrier of morality and culture. The main performance is :(1) the use of jade system; "Wang holds town GUI, gong holds huan GUI, hou zhixin GUI, bo holds gong GUI, zi holds gu bi, male holds pu bi" as early as in the spring and autumn and warring states period some "six rui" use system. (2) ethics and morality; Confucius said, "in the past, a gentleman was more virtuous than a jade." the "virtuous" in this article, compared with the original material characteristics of jade, was interpreted as having the particularity of moral connotation, and then gave it the moral meaning of "wood", "nine virtues" and "eleven virtues". (3) religious function; In totem worship, the jade used by human beings is mainly made of wall, cong, gourd, glass, hu hu and carbon, and is made of leather, horse, silk, brocade and embroidery. According to the book of rites of zhou, dian rui, "great sacrifice, great brigade, all the things of the guests are served with jade." "The office of the four teachers of the zhou rites" says: "the big one rents the plowshares and the small one the COINS." Are organically integrated with religious culture. (4) decorative function; The carving theme and style of jade ware have the special meaning and connotation of China. The wearing and decoration of jade not only beautifies its own image and elegant environment, but also has a strong atmosphere of sustenance and blessing, reflecting people's long-term pursuit and expectation. (5) value function; Exquisite jade, due to its scarcity and gorgeous luster has long been the pursuit of dignitaries, scholars and collectors pet. Especially in modern times, its own value has reached the peak of history with the development of market economy. Moreover, according to the related textual research, the medicinal value of jade, medical value has been approved. This makes the jade itself set, god, virtue, ritual, teaching, price, medicine, and a series of halo, the value is a hundred times.
As early as in the spring and autumn and warring states period, a large number of jade into the central plains, royal princes competing to use jade, at this time Confucianism and jade together to study, with jade to reflect the thought of rites, benevolence, wisdom, justice, rites, music, loyalty, faith, heaven, earth, virtue and other traditional concepts, than the original jade all kinds of material characteristics. Jade was interpreted by Confucianism as having the particularity of moral connotation, which gave it the moral meaning of "five virtues", "nine virtues" and "eleven virtues". The nature of abstruse jade is endowed with philosophy and moralization; The arrangement of the form of the jade, the conferring of the rank of the peerage, and the politicization." It was a high theoretical summary of ritual and jade research at that time. Xu shen "shuo wen" called jade "the beauty of stone, there are five virtues" namely benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom and faith. "The gentleman is better than the jade yan", "the gentleman without reason jade does not go to the body", the request personality noble gentleman's moral character has the jade characteristic benevolence, righteousness, courtesy, wisdom, letter, music, loyalty, heaven, earth, virtue, tao and so on accomplishment, achieves "wen run and ze", "wen qi like jade", "wen wen respect person" and so on the courtesy request. Zheng xuan paper: "wen run and ze, benevolence also; Careful to chestnut, know also; An honest man and an upright one; Hang down like falling, ceremony also; Fu Yin bang da, faith." Therefore, under the guidance of Confucianism, a Confucian jade system with ritual vessels and ornaments as the main body was established. In the analects of Confucius · township party, there is a situation in which Confucius holds a GUI: he is bent over, as if he cannot hold it, and he looks very careful. "The analects of Confucius · Yang goods" : "li yun, li yun, jade and silk clouds how? Le yun, le yun, what are the bells and drums?" It emphasizes the unity of content and form, text and quality. "Rites" : zi gong asked Confucius why jade is expensive, and 碈 base? Is it because the jade is little and 碈 much? Confucius replied, "no, because a gentleman is more virtuous than a jade." That is to say, the gentleman to make his character like jade, jade than 碈 represents is rich in content. This also reflects the overall understanding of the founder of Confucianism on jade and rites, jade and morality. The interpretation of "jade virtue" by Confucianism is to use the unique materiality of jade to concretize the abstract ethical and moral concepts.
Buddhist culture is also one of the unique cultures of Chinese civilization. Buddhism has a long history of spreading into China and other countries and regions in the han cultural circle and penetrating into the hearts of the masses. Although many people do not believe in Buddhism, buddhist culture has long existed and spread widely in China, influencing generations of ancient ancestors and engrave it in People's Daily life. The buddhist culture, which is also inherited from the jade culture, has a history of more than 2,500 years. On the basis of precept, determination and wisdom, we advocate people to be good and wise. Fu sheng jade Buddha culture and the perfect combination of jade culture, jade aura, melt Buddha teaching text. And with its broad and majestic, become the jade culture and Buddha culture intertwined and one of the examples. If a statue of Buddha and an auspicious handicraft did not light, it is only a work of art, but also can not be for people to worship and worship, only after light blessing or chanting, can have aura. The perfect combination of jade culture and Buddha culture makes people's yearning and worship of jade more profound. Anshan jade Buddha garden, Shanghai jade Buddha temple. And the tongbai huai source water curtain temple in nanyang jade Buddha is also such an example. In short, the influence of Chinese jade culture and buddhist culture is mutual, and both have penetrated the essence of a long history. Besides, there are a lot of buddhist scriptures and doctrines in Buddhism and buddhist culture, which are inseparable from jade culture.
During the six dynasties of wei and jin, the Confucian ritual and jade system gradually declined. At this time, Taoism "precious life", "precious art" with jade thoughts quietly inherited the traditional essence of the pre-qin jade culture, gradually reflected in the form of a hidden culture, giving a new meaning to the Chinese jade culture at a low tide. Thus, the function of jade culture caused by the great change of social background was transformed and the decline of jade culture was saved. Because he can adapt to the needs and love of all social strata, "Lao tzu is the one who does nothing, the two immortal bait clothing, the three fu ban." Therefore in the broad folk and the upper scholar-bureaucrat stratum quite receives the favor. It is precisely because of this that Taoism's preference for Chinese jade culture leads to the continuation and development of jade culture under the background of the decline of Confucian ritual and jade system without any fault. Taoism from the medicinal, funeral instruments, legalinstruments to show the brilliant Taoist thoughts. Once again the jade culture to a new milestone.
From "the jade emperor" to "the jade woman jade lang", the celestial realm area is "the jade jing jade qing", the place which lives says "the jade que jade building", its book says "the jade brief jade book", has that animal and plant seals "the jade rabbit jade toad", "the jade tree jade flower". The deities and beauties of Taoist culture are closely related to jade culture and have an inseparable internal relationship. And in the essence of Taoist culture, shang yu traces everywhere. Taoism thought that: jade is the essence of nature with supernatural. Jade is clever and can fly. Jade is the essence of Yang wu, living clothes can prolong life. Jade has auspicious signs, hidden hidden hidden evils. Taoist culture embodies the single cultural function and clarity of the thought of using jade. However, it has diversified sources of jade belief and worship, and its connotation includes the communication concept of ancient people and gods, as well as the blending of "yi family", "Yin and Yang family" and its own doctrines. There is not only the absorption of minority culture and foreign culture, but also the inheritance and transformation of the "Confucian" ritual system. Both the use of qin and han "art", but also the acceptance of folk ideas. After the song dynasty, with the confluence of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, and the transformation of Taoism from "birth" to "birth", the original way of using jade was completely submerged. Jade, just became the ruling class and dignitaries in the hands of playthings and display. The essence and religious value of jade culture are also far inferior to its value of appreciation and collection.