Chinese jade culture has a long history, and its characteristics and status can be seen from the following comparison.
1. From the time of mining jade.
There are two comparable points, namely the morning and evening and the length of time. About 12000 years ago, China southern original inhabitants began with chopping the serpentine forge, 7000 years ago nahuy culture appeared grinding fine colored stone stone chisel, hemudu stones jade piece, about 6000-4000 xinjiang lop-nor ancestors have adopted and hetian jade polished without hole stone axe. For the next four thousand years, our ancestors' treatment of jade was never interrupted. The earliest use of jade in foreign countries was the primitive culture of Siberia between 3000 and 2000 BC. They used soft jade to make tools and disks, but they have disappeared since then. Japanese ancient jade big bead appeared in the middle of the jomon era (2900 BC - 2300 BC), jade tube in the yayoi period (300 BC - 300 AD), the ancient grave (AD 300-440) for jade craft will decline and demise. The Indian jade began to disappear from 1000 BC to 900 AD. About collect jade time sooner or later, because of different detection methods, certain error may occur, but you can be sure China is one of the earliest countries with the jade, jade is also with the longest countries.
2. Compare from jade and jade.
Abroad the yield jade place more monotonous, the jade color such as Japan, Indian jade with jade is given priority to, its soft jade also in shades of green, the soft jade green, green, was out with ink on jade, near Lake Baikal condom primitive culture out of the white soft jade, but in our country and hetian jade, except for the green, blue, ink and color such as yellow, white jade, notably the suet white jade optimal. Japanese jadeite and jasper, Maori jasper, Indian Maya jadeite texture is lack of warm and crystal feeling, and our country and kanyan jade exquisite and meticulous. Therefore, from jade, jade comparison, and khotan jade is also foreign jade.
3. Compare the jade tools.
The rotatory tools used in the Chinese dressing may have started from the red mountain culture and liangzhu culture in the primitive society, and then gradually developed into a water stool. Japanese, Siberia, Indian Maya and so on what tool to cut jade? Japanese scholars have deduced from the current attack on jade that the ancient jade in Japan was also polished by a rotating tool, and there was no other argument material. In India, in the 19th century YuGong rotational tool icon to this operation, for YiLao YuGong push-pull bowstring to the circular mound rotates with the right hand, left hand holding the jade, estimate inconvenience and low efficiency. The jade tool in this picture is three centuries later than the water bench depicted in "the work of heaven", and is far behind the water bench in its structure and transmission. There is no denying the fact that the ancient Chinese rotary jade tools were the most advanced and perfect.
Compare the skills.
Chinese ancient jade craft has a history of 7000 years, has accumulated rich and valuable experience, the Japanese, European, Maori, the Maya and Arab grinding jade artistry are dust. It is necessary to make a detailed analysis of the grinding skills of the stain du-mu-mughu jade. We admit that we have reached a very high level in the art of the jade carving, and have had a great influence on the late qing dynasty and the modern jade craft. Qianlong had a very high evaluation of the jade, he said in the poem: pu yunkun mountain, engrave India, the west kunqu yield jade, the good craftsman out of the mark, and praise its jade thin like paper, or compared to the cicada wing. He also likes to think it is exquisite: the leaves of the heavy layer, the knife and axe is muddy, fine into the hair, and not the gouge scar, jing engrave the ghost work, but inexplicably he is mistaken for the jade is the water mill. From the existing mughal jade inspection, the fetal thin as paper, but the fetal thickness of the porcelain is also not insignificant. In suzhou, there is also a thin tire, in which the chrysanthemum plate is thin as a cicada, showing a translucent state, indicating that the jade workers in suzhou have the ability to wear the jade very thin. So why is the Chinese ancient jade organ more thick than the thick? This is rare and expensive. If the thought is too thin, a piece of labor, two make the jade material to wear out too much, the three damage jade quality, give a person to be not solid feeling, easy to be confused with the glass, therefore zhi yu does not advocate the work of thin tire. In late qing dynasty jade industry accepted mark stein jade lang Chinese trumpet creeper secco plant pattern and stone setting two characteristics, and development into copy is sweet, it shows that our country YuGong to mark jade craft, hold the attitude of the foster strengths and circumvent weaknesses, to absorb the advantages to enrich and develop themselves, and jettisoned its thin body doesn't accord with our national tradition and the shape of Arab and other factors.
5. Compare the function of jade.
Ancient jade articles in our country are closely related to many aspects of social life, and the five aspects of social functions are introduced. The europeans think that Nephrite has the effect of curing kidney disease at the waist, which is a kind of superstition, but the jade tools of primitive society still have certain practical value. The Japanese people's understanding of jade and jade is more complicated than that of europeans. They think that jade, besides decorative functions, has the function of charm, treasure and sacrifice. Arab jade articles are generally limited to living utensils and bottle basins; The Indian Maya jade articles are related to the service of god's officials and sacrificial rites. In addition, jade and decorative jade are still used in life. In short, the social functions of the above-mentioned jade articles are less than the extensive social functions produced by Chinese ancient jade articles.
6. Compare the shape of jade.
Chinese ancient jade system is quite rich. The ancient jade articles in ancient Japan are roughly the following: the ancient Japanese jade articles are limited to beads, tubes, blocks, hooks, pectines and abstract animals. The Maori jade only saw the idol, pei, ax; In the neolithic age of Siberia, only axe, chisel, plate and other tools and utensils, and the modelling is relatively simple; The Arabian jade articles are mainly utensils, which are unique and unique, but also have a simple type. Maya Indian jade system around a bit more than that, there are tools, beads, pipe, sheet, character relief and green like jade, but compared with ancient Chinese jade type system, the mayan jade also appears quite drab.
Compare the decorative patterns of jade articles.
The decorative patterns of ancient Chinese jade articles, including geometric shapes, animals, plants, words and paintings, comprehensive and other subjects. In Japan, Europe, Siberia, Maori and other jade articles are mostly light or simple geometric patterns, little decoration. Among them, the decorative patterns of jade articles such as Maya and Arabia have their own unique style, such as the leaf ornaments of the gladiator of the jade, and the patterns such as the western lotus and the clematis. Maya Indian jade grain is refined with character design, but compared with the Chinese ancient jade pattern decoration, then overshadowed, especially in the history of Chinese ancient jade painting pattern, cut jade unique in the history of the world.