Jade's development has a long history in China, and it is found that the earliest jade ware was the 3 pieces of soft jade chopper in the small mountain fairy cave in haicheng, liaoning province 10,000 years ago. Jade is a shining pearl in the glorious history and culture of China. Among the hundred flowers of the world art, it is unique and has distinct national characteristics. Jade in the eyes of the Chinese people is like a holy, noble, beautiful, and faithful. For thousands of years, people have a special affection for jade, jade, jade and jade. Jade culture has become an important part of the mysterious Oriental culture. There are more than 370 entries in our country, such as words, idioms, terms, names, places and Musical Instruments. From the book of poetry, chu ci, han fu, tang poetry, song ci, yuan qu to Ming and qing dynasties, the theme of yu siyu is almost endless, vast and vast, vast and vast. The author intends to analyze the cultural connotation of jade from the relevant idioms, so as to improve the consciousness of jade culture and promote the inheritance and development of jade culture.
One, our country and jade related idioms and stories.
1. The skin is the skin of a woman, and the bones are like jade. The meaning of the allusion is to describe the pure and beautiful woman, also can describe the beauty of the plum blossom. From "chuang tzu"
2. The ice clear jade direct meaning refers to the father-in-law is like the ice clean, the son-in-law is like jade so warm. In ancient times, there was also a man called "ice jade". From "the Book of Jin · wei ji" gao lian "jade zhairpin"
3. To be pure and clear, pure and clear like ice, to be pure as jade, to describe the integrity of conduct, to be virtuous, and to be fair to the officials. That is, "as the ice is clear, as jade is clean, clean and positive, and not obscene." From "wei shu · guangling wang chuan"
4. Good straight meaning refers to spare gold, and idioms in the "gold" refers to the meaning of the precious, good is when people give advice or comments, please kind words, and are welcome to comment, hope to be generous with valuable advice. It comes from "the surprise of the first cut."
5. Amass a fortune Good for soft precious thing in the world, generally in the cartridge box lock up, stack shows good if too many, described the possession of wealth, and there are likely to show it is rich, namely "amass a fortune boast fine long hair yi" written by li ho chang valley set, chao young poetry
6. The powder is decorated with white powder, white jade carved. More snow scene, also can describe the child life of the white and lovely. "Dream of red mansions" for the first time.
7. It was a sin to hold the jade in his heart. A man of ability is envied. That is, "no one is guilty. From "zuo zhuan huan ten years"
8. Huai jin yu said that jin yu, in the sense of the clothes, with jin, in the hands of yu. A person has a pure and beautiful character. That is, "huai jin yu, poor do not know". From "the song of chu"
9. The law of the golden rule refers to the provisions of the law; It used to describe the perfection of the legal provisions, and now refers to the unchangeable rules. By Chen ziliang, "Chen zigan in pingcheng county"
10. In ancient times, it was said that the emperor spoke, and then sometimes he could not change his words.
11. The hardest things want stone refers to the hardest stone is diamond (also), as hard as a stone can be moved, and describe the sincerity can produce the feeling of power, namely "sincere will find a way." From han dynasty (han), han shi.
12. The title of the gold question refers to the inscription of an inscription, which refers to the decoration of a fine painting or book, as well as a decorative gift. From tonya appliance
13. The content and form of the article are perfect. For example, wang yi's "li SAO order" : refers to the gold phase jade, 100 world without a piece, the name is pendent, will never be destroyed. From wang yi's "li SAO"
14. Jin youyu kunkun: brother. It is said that a brother is beautiful, and kunyu is the name of a brother. From the spring and autumn annals of the sixteen countries
15. The good words are very valuable advice. This is from "the official scene of officialdom" 11 times.
16. It was originally described as having a lot of wealth, and gold and jade filled the room. Later, people are very talented and knowledgeable. From "Lao tzu".
17. In addition, the appearance of gold jade is like a golden jade, but it is a broken quilt. It is a metaphor for people or things that are good and real bad. From liu ji's "bona fide burners"
18. The golden leaves pointed out the descendants of the royal family, the son of a prince, or the daughter of a noble family. From the original "jingde lantern records"
19. Beautiful clothes, elegant clothes, exquisite food. A life of luxury and luxury. From "wei shu · changjing"
20. Kunshan jade kunlun mountain is made of jade. The direct meaning is one of the many jade stones of kunlun mountain, which is used to indicate modesty. Although it is a beautiful jade, one of the jade in the kunlun mountains is a drop in the ocean, and it is later used to refer to the outstanding people of the United States and China. From the Book of Jin.
21. Orchid is broken to use the orchid, beautiful jade to break the parable of the sage died, to mourn the talented person early to die, also has the change "ning for the orchid broken jade, does not make the xiao fu ai rong". From liu yiqing, "a new language of the world"
22. Blue tian yusheng blue field is the ancient jade mountain name, metaphor virtuous father sheng xian son. From The Three Kingdoms, wu shu · zhuge ke
23. In the United States, in the ancient times, people put the beautiful jade in the hat, the original metaphor Chen ping is like a hat in the appearance of a beautiful inner emptiness, and then to use the metaphor of male beauty. From the history.
24. It is better to die than to be broken, not to be preserved, but to die for justice, and not to die. From the book of beiqi · yuan jing 'an
25. Uncarved jade is the uncarved jade, the unrefined gold is muddy gold. It refers to natural beauty that is not embellished. The quality of the person is simple and unspoiled. From liu yiqing, "a new language of the world"
26. To throw a brick in the direction of a brick to bring back the jade, to say that he first published a crude opinion or article, the purpose of which is to bring out other people's views or good works. From the original "jingde biography of jingde"
27. To be dressed in a coarse, coarse clothes, but with a beautiful jade, is a metaphor for a unique skill, not revealed in front of people. This is from Lao zi, chapter 70.
28. Return is choi choi, and, for all, when the warring states period zhao Qin Zhaowang sent pretends to 15 cities to change and choi, prince of zhao did not dare to refuse, but again afraid cheated, had to go to see the king of qin sent Lin xiangru's carrying choi, found the king of qin scam after choi, inventions back and back to zhao. The idiom is used to describe the complete return of the original. From the historical records, Lin xiangru.
29. The pavilion is a tall and beautiful woman with a long and beautiful figure. From shen fu's "six records of floating birth"
30. A piece of ice in the jade pot to describe indifferent fame and wealth in the character of fame. It is from wang changling's poem "the furong building sends xinjian".
31. It refers to an ancient weapon or a war. It refers to a gift from the union and a good gift. It refers to a conflict between the two parties and the reconciliation.
32. Pear-shaped jade is round like a pearl, like a jade that is warm, describe the song or the words are both euphemistic and smooth, natural and fluent, namely, "round jade, all around linglong". By zhou ji.
33. A combination of pearls and pearls. That is to say, "the sun and the moon are like a couple, five stars like beads", and the metaphor of talents and good things are gathered together. From the book of the han dynasty.
34. Surrounded by pearls and jadeite, it can be described as a beautiful woman, or a person with a lot of beauty or talent. From "yuan qu", zheng dehui, "the lady from the rose"
35. The jade in the side is more than the appearance of the people who are more than their own people, the comparison is deeply ashamed, namely "the jade in the side, ashamed of self-humiliation". From the southern dynasty · song · liu yiqing, "the new words of the world"
36. All the jade and the stone were destroyed, and the good and the bad died together. Out of the book "shangshu · Yin zheng"
37. There are some minor shortcomings in the simile of white jade. From the tao yuanming episode
38. The perfect metaphor and the perfection of everything. From "jingde's Lantern Festival"
39. The palace is beautiful and beautiful. From jin · wang jia "collection"
40. In spite of each other, there are advantages and disadvantages. From the "casual mail"
41. In spite of all the flaws, the disadvantages cannot cover up the advantages. From the book of rites
The cultural implication of jade.
1. Jade is a powerful like real jade scarce rare, it is considered to be sacred and ancient therefore, jade treasure was destiny the gods memorial tablet of kingship supreme interests, is the laws of the old ethical code label index, jade as the Chinese Confucianism, Buddhism, daoism general believed in, deposit the pursuit and desire of the ruling class through the ages. This point has a prominent expression in the idiom: "the golden words" represents the emperor who is not ten, and every sentence is the "truth" of the people; The "golden rule" refers to the laws and regulations that protect the interests of the ruling class. Massage house "heap gold build by laying bricks or stones jade", reduceing sent around the palace, the ancient god of "Jin Zhenyu" such as ancient Chinese idioms have foil without additional kingship and theocracy, the qing dynasty of the decree, engraved "for the day," who gets it, who is the right person.
2. Jade is also a symbol of wealth, and it is a story of the late warring states period in the late warring states period. The king of the state of chu, the king of the state of chu, was the king of the state of chu. The king of qin had a mouth-watering mouth and sent a messenger to the king of zhao, saying that he would exchange it with the fifteen cities. The king of zhao had no choice but to send Lin xiangru to the state of qin. Lin xiangru, the author of the legend, made it to the state of zhao, and it was widely circulated since then. It was not an exaggeration to say that the jade was worth a lot of money. In addition, "the accumulation of gold and jade", "jinyu manchu", "jinyi jade food" and other idioms also explain the wealth of jade like the significance.
3. Jade is a human and moral symbol of beauty, including form, intelligence and morality. "Graceful and graceful", "beautiful jade", "frozen flesh and jade", "powder makeup jade" and so on are the expression of human body beauty; "Unadorned beauty", "pure", "brown HuaiYu", "one ice heart in okho", "it is is better to die when life is a disgrace", "ning for LAN jiggled jade fold, do not make xiao fu YiRong" human expression of high character; "Huai jin yu", "jin youyu kun" and "jinyu mantang" are the expressions of outstanding talents. And "the outside of the golden jade" is the idiom of a different person.
4. Jade is a peaceful symbol of the ancient yellow emperor of China, with jade as a soldier, initiated the world history of the unique jade era. In this era, it has become the main body of the social material civilization by making tools, weapons, sacrificial vessels, sacrificial vessels and peepers. There is no jade weapon today, but history has left it, to prevent the "destruction of the world" and adopt the foreign policy of "turning swords into swords". Prevent war, maintain peace and other idioms. In order to safeguard the territorial sovereignty and the reunification of the motherland, there are also idioms such as "jinou".
5. Jade and jade is both material wealth and spiritual wealth, is in the process of social and historical development of mankind has created the sum total of material wealth and spiritual wealth, is human consciousness of active directional relics materialized results associated with jade idioms have the expression of both material and spiritual wealth. And the idiom is the expression of people and things.
The formation mechanism of related idioms and the cultural background formed.
1. Stone worship mechanism stone is the natural object between heaven and earth. Man is born with the knowledge and use of stone. A number of stone tools have reportedly been found in the arfa region in northeastern Ethiopia. About 2.5 million years ago, it was the first stone tool ever discovered. After the use of simple tools such as sticks and stone tools, apes evolved into adults. According to the archaeological survey in our country, there was evidence of the use of fire by the yuanmou people before 1.7 million years ago. By the time of the beijingers in the 1950s and 1960s, there was not only evidence of the use of fire, but also the remains of stone tools. Ancient natural fire from lightning, more important use of stone to obtain, the discovery of fire, the human from "raw food" to "cooked food", is the human from the nature of the cultural realm of the important symbol. The use of stone, other than stone tools, and the use of stone caves. The relationship between man and stone has evolved from one aspect of belief in the use of stone. Rock hard and durable, passage and glebe's old, capricious, but stand tall stone, humans think stone is a spirit, to produce the fear psychology, produced stone worship and myths and legends about the stone.
In the morning, the sun first shone on the stones on the hills and left the shadow moving, and the stone became the image of the sun worshiper. Ancient ancestors prayed for longevity and stone as an immortal immortal. In the spring, the worship of stone sacrifice, worship stone, and so far some ethnic minorities and worship stone custom. There is a custom of "stone to be" safe in all parts of the country. Jade is the beauty of stone, and jade culture includes inheritance and development of stone worship.
2. The ancient ancestors of jade believed that jade was "the stone of heaven". Therefore, from the beginning of the primitive society, I have made jade into the totem of worship and the sacrificial rites of the earth gods. Such as "jade for six, heaven and earth square with courtesy, with pale wall day, with Huang Congli ground, with green, the east, with red Zhang south, with Bai Huli west, north to XuanHuang ceremony" shanhaijing said jade is the food of the gods, "the jade sea", "big history biography," big wear reading notes "and so on of cadastral, according to the yellow emperor era YaoShunYu queen (blunt words figure 1 by the deer in jade, as a result, a lot of people in the right of communication with god" bridge ", to form view of destiny, jade emperor qin shi huang choi, and get the "psychic", and "man in the day of the first emperor of China.
3. Yu said the spring and autumn period and the warring states period, Confucianism will be compared with the features of the jade of the gay coat that makes the gentleman put forward "the gentleman bede jade", make peja jade wind rising stage, so that "a gentleman without reason, jade body". The eastern han xu shen (said wen jie zi) called "jade", the beauty of stone, there are five virtues, nourishing and warm, and benevolence. As far as the mind is concerned, we can know the square of righteousness. Its sound is comfortable, apply it to the distance, the wise party also: do not fold, yong's side also; Sharp, not twisty, and clean. The five virtues of "benevolence", "righteousness", "wisdom", "yong" and "jie" are all contained in the characteristics of jade, which is the development of jade's eleven virtues and nine virtues.
4. Jin yu and zhu yu said that jin found less precious metals in our country, jade is the beauty of stone. Jinyu refers to material wealth, but its social implication is extremely rich, and it is an amazing spiritual power over the society. Not only the idiom related to jinyu is the embodiment of the divine right. Even yellow became the color of Chinese emperors.
Bead jade say: "mozi", said: "and surname choi, governors beads, three six spines, the treasure of the governors", since ancient times, Chinese culture has combined the pearl and the treasure jade "bead jade" is a sign of wealth. Later, with the discovery of jadeite (jadeite), there are more and more historical idioms that combine with jade.
5. Jade religious status as a part of human culture organic whole, whether global or regional, national religion, primitive religion and theology of religions have a common characteristic, that is cannot leave the valuable jade. Because Islam against idol worship, the less valuable jade in the house of god, in the holy city of mecca KABAH temple, worship as the embodiment of the teaching of the supreme god is a piece of black meteorites, Christianity with jasper, the sapphire purple article 12 kinds of gemstone, such as the holy city, twelve cornerstone, Buddhism regulation is gold, silver, jade, coral; Amber, pearl and glass are the seven treasures of Buddhism. There are pearls, crystals, sapphires, white jade, and various kinds of jade. It is used to decorate religious shrines, the elysium, the temple of the temple Buddha, the buddhist temple. There are more than 20 kinds of gems in buddhist temples and towers in Bangkok, Thailand. There are more than 30 kinds of baoyu stone in the qalu temple in qinghai. The demand of religion promotes the development of baoyu stone and enriches the content of jade culture, which also provides the cultural background for the formation of related idioms and stories.