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The long history of Chinese jade culture

And to the longshan culture period of about 4500-3500 years ago or later of shandong longshan culture, tao temple culture, stone Mao culture, culture and Shi Guhe culture five out jade jade culture, though a variety, but its emerging jade just guerra, Zhang, knives, tools or weapons such as jade. Another very distinct, besides its culture area still prevalent cong, choi, these two kinds of jade artifacts in four other jade culture area decreased significantly, but also change the shape, the rough on the processing. This change is not an accident, but a reflection of the change in the owner of the jade ware. The reduction and degradation of cong and bi symbolized the decline and death of the jade artifact, which indirectly reflected the weakening and marginalization of the power. Guerra, Zhang, knife device is a symbol of political and military power and the carrier, master these jade figures are political leaders and military commanders of the tribe, they get the power, take wu instead, and wu is a special members of the clergy, the theocratic also will fall into their hands and are modified, wu things god jade artifact will disappear. Thus we can say that the era of theocracy, which was ruled by the prehistoric society, has been transferred to the era of the reign of the emperor.

Natural jade carving Chinese Kunlun nephrite jade collectibles
The development of jade culture.
The invention of bronze ware promoted the development of productivity. At this time, the original power symbol, such as GUI, zhang, tomahawk, ge, etc., became sacrificial rites and ceremonial organs.
There are few jade articles in the summer, mainly in the shang dynasty. Early shang dynasty to the middle of the jade jade, jade tomahawk, YuGe, jade guerra, jade cong, yu huang, jade axe, jade, jade jade handle shape, cylindrical and etc, the derived mainly from weapon ceremonial or ritual sacrifices. In the late shang dynasty, jade ware was abundant. According to the statistics of the "women's good" tomb, the spouse of wang wuding, who was excavated in 1976, it can be divided into rites, instruments, practical tools, decorations and so on. Among them, there are large cong, cong, GUI, bir, ring, jue, huang and GUI, etc. This provided the essential condition for the perfect etiquette in the western zhou dynasty. It can be seen from the unearthed jade from the tomb of women and women that the jade carving process of shang dynasty has made great progress in material selection, modeling and production techniques. In the material selection, it has already started to use the pure color beauty and khotan soft jade, especially in the late shang dynasty, and khotan jade has occupied a considerable proportion. In production technology, the independent handmade jade workshop, have not only mastered the tick removal, drill, drill pipe, polishing technique, and can skillfully line is engraved, embossed, round, valuable.such handiwork fuses in together, greatly enhance the jade visual stereo feeling. Shang dynasty jade ware also inherited the three-dimensional round sculpture portrait of a variety of animal images, is the ancient jade in China from the plane to the three-dimensional, from simple decoration to the complex display of a big step.
The day of the king of heaven, with the yellow emperor, with the east of the green, and the south of the red, with the white amber salute, with the north of the xuanhuang. Jade, jade, jade, jade, jade, jade, and jade are six kinds of sacrificial vessels, namely "six organs", also known as "six rui". In addition to the six organs, zhou li also set up a strict hierarchy system for the clothing system of tianzi and zhuhou. For example, the crown of the imperial crown is equipped with a "twelve yi", with 288 jade, jade beads use white jade. And like a "son of heaven peja jade ribbon and xuan group, even if she mountain XuanYu ribbon and zhu group, doctor's beryl and ribbon Zi group, prince, Peggy yu jade ribbon and regard group, then peja 瓀 mei and ribbon Yun group. The old gentleman must be the jade. At this point, the Chinese jade culture has completely stepped into the jade era.
During the shang and zhou dynasties, the appearance of bronze ware tools raised the level of jade, making it easy to cut, grind, line, roll and remove. In the shang dynasty, the royal family had a large workshop, among which there were workshops dedicated to jade, such as the ruins of the shang dynasty jade workshop. In the workshop, jade workers continuously improved the production process, improved the production technology, produced various kinds of jade articles for the court, and formed the situation of making jade prosperous and prosperous. The erlitou site has unearthed many large jade weapons, such as jade, jade dao, etc., and the large ones are more than half meters high, and the thin pieces of jade have appeared in large Numbers at that time, which is the result of the use of copper slicing tools.
Bronze tools is to use advanced technology, the complicated shape of jade production is strong, but copper hardness is not high, at the same time, cut wear jade also in rapid wear itself, it can't affect the fine jade processing and the deep contradiction. In shang zhou jade, it is the decorative pattern, which is called double check rolling. This pattern has the effect of Yang wen, which is also the best effect of the copper tool.
In the eastern zhou dynasty, there was a great deal of fighting among the feudal lords, and the liyu system was badly hit in the early western zhou dynasty. During the spring and autumn period, there was a great debate about the value and function of jade. Mozi was on behalf of civilians emphasizes "because of its power, not born" bad its force, his opposition to the war in plunder advocate thrift, is beneficial to solve people's food and clothing as the measured value of the standard, he points out: "and surname choi, hou beads, six different three spines, the governors of the so-called LiangBao also, can the rich countries, and all the people, punishment policy, state? "No." Means "of the wall, and" the treasures of recognized all over the world, such as can not make the country rich, also can't make prosperous, has no effect on the social stability, so it's not what treasures, just a few rulers luxury, think with the jade "expended, California", for luxury with the jade activities give full negation. On behalf of the new landlord class everything is done are urged to "law" as the center of the "trend of method, technique," combination of capability main ideas, ignoring the jade bring a person the spirit of enjoyment, equate jade with pure material supplies, think "has the practical value of the jade worthwhile". Confucianism founder of Confucius is a more practical attitude, not only love treasure jade ritual vessels, and called for reconstruction of ritual, jade personification, put forward "than the gay coat that makes the gentleman in the jade", from the kernel, knowledge, righteousness, ritual, music, sincerity, truthfulness, heaven, earth, Germany, eleven aspects, such as a detailed description of the moral connotation of jade. His description eventually formed the Confucian jade system, which had a profound influence on later generations.
In the eastern zhou dynasty, jade was popular, and the emperors and the people of the common people all took the jade as your precious treasure, and the jade ware was widely used for sacrifice, decoration and burial. With the shaking of the worship of god and the popularity of bronze ware, the decoration of the jade sacrificial vessel is gradually enriched, which is mainly used for pilgrimage, vows, marriage and funeral, etc. The most notable feature of the eastern zhou dynasty is the popularity of jade ornaments, which marks the transformation of ancient jade from god to man, and the formation of Confucian jade thought marks the formal establishment of jade personification.
After the warring states period, iron tools were widely used, and wrought iron had good forging properties, which could be used to make tools of various shapes, making a big step forward in the shape and wear resistance of bronze tools. Especially forging small tools more favorable conditions, cut grain system requires small tools such as yi, bump, hook, withdraw, hook hook tuo edge thin texture requirements, a long slender hole for collar, search Angle hole for fine wire, these tools with iron and durable, and not brittle. It can be made into thin, long and hard steel collars, which can be used for long and thin holes, which can solve the problem of perforation of large and small holes. Therefore, in the eastern zhou jade, the jade carving process is more rapid, the lines are strong, the drilling is smooth. Tou and inlaid jade technology also reached a high level, in addition to the widespread use of the sword, hook, horses and chariots and other small objects on the outside, in the pot, pot, and other large also started to use bronze, valuable.such handiwork, hollow out hard work at this time also common occurance.
In the western han dynasty, the ceremonial nature of jade was greatly weakened, and besides the bibi and the GUI, there was also a certain function of etiquette, and the decoration function was only available for huang and hu, and the cong and zhang were hardly found. But kind of extremely rich characteristics with the jade way - pray for the dead and buried jade immortality, mainly includes the jade, jade, jade Han, jade is four. During the period of qin and han dynasty in the mature period of jade culture, it was more convenient for China to collect and transport jade raw materials, and xinjiang and khotan had entered the central plains in large Numbers. Emperor wudi of the han dynasty "deposed a hundred families, the only Confucianism", and the Confucian jade system, which was mainly ceremonial and decorative, was greatly supported. Decorative jade has accounted for a large percentage at this moment, are purely decorative meaning and has certain practical qualitative wek-jin, the former, such as dragon, tiger, form page and string act the role ofing, groups, page, etc., the latter refers to hook, Ji and heart-shaped decorations such as her. However, the highest value should be the jade carving and embossed jade, which are found in many works, which are excellent in quality, refined and novel, and have a very important position in ancient Chinese history. The han dynasty jade in the bold, elegant and refined, the unique charm of the world fell.
During the sui and tang dynasties, people were no longer mysterious to jade, and a large number of jade articles became private collections of royal palace nobles, which led to the appearance of jade carving products in the pattern of curiousness and decoration. In the tang dynasty decoration jade is more commonly seen is the jade step shake, this is a kind of metal inlaid jade composite decorations, "step" the jade plate is extremely thin, even the carving has exquisite flower and bird decoration. Another kind is jade belt, the officer robe on etiquette belt of jade, there are strict with the jade system in the tang dynasty, only the emperor, the prince and the doctrine of officials on the clothes to wear, wear the number ranged from 7 to 13. The higher the grade, the more the number. Engraving process on the basis of inheriting traditional jade carving fusion contemporary expression of the gold and silver details, sculpture, painting, and absorb the art of central Asia, west Asia and other places, eclectic, will converge and form the unique artistic style. Jade started the secular tendency in the tang dynasty, the manifestation is the breath of life gradually infiltration, realistic strong, is not mixed with exaggerated color, free-spirited romanticism with the han dynasty had obvious difference.
Song dynasty jade showing a strong tendency of secularization and thick life breath, shape selected topics in everyday life to the realism creation, cater to consumer psychology society, this is due to the prosperity of the town, the development of the business, expanding makes citizen stratum, jade in the service of ordinary citizens has become the trend of The Times. The flourishing of literati painting and calligraphy in the song dynasty, many articles such as pen holder, pen holder, ink stone, paperweight and so on became the objects of the jade craftsman. Song dynasty jade another characteristic is that the emergence of a large number of antique jade, song dynasty thick ancient wind prevails, appeared a extol ancient jade plain, elegant style, this kind of antique jade works for the palace, has the very high artistic value. The Ming scholar gao lian praised "the song dynasty jade, the ancient times, after the bad, helpless song people". In the song dynasty, the engraving method was widely used. It was symmetrical and balanced in shape and ornamentation. It revealed a strong life atmosphere in the shape of the figure, and achieved a high degree of unity of life and art.

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