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A brief introduction to the jade clothes of the han dynasty

The burial shroud used by the emperor and imperial concubine of the han dynasty in China lasted about 400 years between 200 and 200 years ago. This type of clothing worn by the deceased is mainly composed of jade pieces, and the class of the deceased is divided into gold wire, silver wire or copper wire. The jade dress, which is made of gold wire, is also known as jade dress and wicker.
For the first time, the history of jade dress is about the treatment of wenjing. The most important factor is that the imperial palace in the han dynasty believed that the jade had anti-corrosion function, which could protect the original appearance of the deceased. During the western han dynasty in the first half of the han dynasty, in addition to the empress of China, the jade dress was also heavily used by the king. After the eastern han dynasty, it was only the emperor and empress.

Natural jade carving ancient Chinese jade
Chinese emperor and nobleman's shroud. It is divided into gold, silver and copper. In 1968 the city was unearthed in the writing of two sets of him, intact, shape such as the human body, each consisting of more than two thousand jade piece with gold BianZhui, each piece of the size and shape of the jade are rigorous design and fine processing, visible when high craft level.
A kind of jade dress. They were made of gold, and the emperor and the nobles died and were used as shrines. Due to the different grades, the jade clothes are divided into gold, silver and copper, and these three kinds of jade clothing have been found in the archaeological work. Two sets of jade pieces unearthed from the tomb of liu sheng, the king of han and zhongshan in the city of mancheng, hebei, are made of two thousand jade pieces made of gold wire.
The jade dress is the most common burial shroud in the han dynasty, which appears in the western han dynasty. According to the "xijing magazine", the emperor of the han dynasty was buried in "beads of jade box", in the form of armor, and connected with gold wire. This jade box is the jade dress that people say everyday. At that time, people were very superstitious about jade to keep the bones immortal, and jade as a kind of noble ritual and status symbol.
The han emperors and nobles were buried in "jade clothes" (also known as "jade boxes") when they died. They are with many pieces of jade have a small hole in the four corners, using gold, silver or copper BianZhui, respectively called "him" (king), "the silver ray of jade clothing" (c), "copper strand jade clothing" (even).
At present, there are 18 tombs in the western han dynasty, and there are only eight. Among them, the most representative is the jade robe of liu sheng, the king of zhongshan, which was unearthed in the tomb of the city of mancheng in hebei province. It took more than 1, 000 grams of gold wire to add up to 2498 pieces of jade, and it took more than two years for hundreds of craftsmen to complete. The whole jade dress is exquisite in design and meticulous in work, which is a rare art treasure. In 1968, when the jade dress was unearthed, it caused a sensation both at home and abroad.
As the jade dress symbolized the status of the imperial aristocracy, there was a very strict process requirements, and the rulers of the han dynasty set up "dongyuan", which was specially made for jade clothing. Artisans here on a large number of jade piece material, drilling, polishing processing to more than ten working procedure, and the jade piece according to the different parts of a human body design into different size and shape, and is connected with gold thread. The cost of making a medium-sized jade dress was almost the same as that of a hundred middle-class families at that time. Not only did the burial suit in jade dress not only failed to fulfill the wish of the nobles, but also caused the bad luck of the tomb raiding, and many of the emperor's tombs were often stolen. By the time of The Three Kingdoms period, the emperor wei wendi cao PI banned the use of jade clothing, and since then the jade clothing has disappeared in the history of China.
Since liberation, jade clothing found in writing has been more than ten, including hebei province mancheng zhongshan jing wang lead vocal of the western han dynasty and his wife dou wan 2 pieces, county of the western han dynasty one of zhongshan filial piety Wang Liuxing, xuzhou, jiangsu province, one of eastern han dynasty Peng Cheng jing Wang Liugong, bozhou in anhui province, eastern han dynasty last years of the name of cao cao cao clan a, a total of five pieces, has fully recovered. Two things in the city of writing as an example, the lead vocal of common jade jade clothing piece 2498 piece, gold weighs 1100 grams, dou wan share jade jade clothing piece 2160 piece, gold weighs 700 grams, the production cost of manpower and material resources is very amazing people.
In 1986, it was unearthed in the han dynasty tomb in mount huangshan town, yongcheng, henan province. It is now collected in henan museum "ancient jade museum in henan".
Jade dress from the late western han dynasty tomb of liang wang, is from 2008 jade pieces, with gold wire conjugate. According to the human body parts, respectively for the hood, side cover, jacket, sleeve, gloves, trousers, socks, etc., jade clothing for ancient aristocratic buried costumes, began in the late warring states period and sheng in the han dynasty, according to different status and rank, the jade clothing orders and divided into gold, silver strands of strand, copper wire strand and strand.
Xuzhou museum's collection of national treasure "jade dress", "jade dress" from 1994 to 1995, the tomb of the king of chu in xuzhou, the xuzhou museum spent more than two years to repair. It is the best jade in China, the highest number of jade pieces and the most exquisite craftsmanship.
This jade dress has many of the most in the country at present: the earliest time, more than 2000 years ago, it is inferred that the tomb owner is the second generation of king liu ying; Jade tablets at most, jade length 174 cm, width 68 cm, with 1576 grams of gold wire and 4248 pieces of jade pieces of unequal size; Jade is the best, jade clothes are all made of xinjiang and tian bai yu, qingyu, wen grun crystal; The craft is the most exquisite, jade dress design is exquisite, the work is meticulous, the combination is flawless, is the rare artistic treasure.
The appearance of the "jade dress" is almost identical to the shape of the human body. The head is made up of a face cap and a face mask, and the face covers the image of the eyes, nose and mouth. Most of the jade pieces that make up the face cover are the small jade pieces of the rectangle, the eyes and mouth are carved on the larger jade piece, the nose is to use five pieces of long tiles of jade to close together, perfectly fine. The jacket consists of front, back and left and right sleeve, each part is separated from each other. The front piece is made of a broad chest and bulging belly, and the lower part of the back piece makes the shape of the human buttocks. The trousers are made of left and right trousers, and they are separate. Hand made to make a fist shape, left and right to hold a jugular jade, feet to make shoes. Some of the jade, as well as the food, and so on. There are 18 pieces of jade in the front and back, and they are arranged in a certain way. In the head of "jade dress", there are eye lid, stuffy nose, earplugs and mouth, and the lower abdomen has the small box and anal plug of the genitals, which are made of jade. In addition, there are 48 agate beads under the neck, with a hook in the waist. The whole set of "jade clothes" has a large body, which is covered with jade, which is 1.88 meters long, and has a total of 2498 pieces of jade, and about 1100 grams of gold wire. The corners of the jade pieces were perforated, and the silk strands made of gold were woven into them, so they were called "jade clothes".
In the western han dynasty more than 2,000 years ago, according to the production level at that time, it was very difficult to make a set of jade clothes. Shipped from distant place jade expected, through a series of the jade expected processes become thousands of, there is a certain size and shape of the jade pieces, each piece of jade pieces are need polishing and drilling, size and shape must go through rigorous design and meticulous processing, BianZhui jade piece also need a lot of special gold. Thus it can be seen that the human and material resources of making a set of "jade clothes" are quite striking.
The extravagant royal aristocracy, superstitious "jade can cold corpse". In order to immortalize their bodies, they used expensive jade clothes as a shroud, and they used nine orifices to trap them. But the result is the opposite, because the price is expensive, often attract a lot of grave robbers, so that "the han dynasty all the tomb raiding, even burn the jade box gold, the skeleton and exhausted." Actually, no coming, even those grave robbers when archaeologists to open the mysterious Chambers, seek the "golden body unbeaten" MuZhuRen has turned into a bunch of soil, and the rest is an exquisite jade clothing. These seem to tell the story of a thousand years of disillusionment.


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