Nanyang is located in the plain land south of the Yellow River and north of funiu mountain. Nanyang city a few kilometers north, is now the junction of urban and rural areas, flat on the plain a hill suddenly uplift. This mountain, not associated with any mountain range, the formation of outstanding flat, so called dushan. Dushan is located from northeast to southwest, about 2.5 kilometers long and 1 ~ 1.5 kilometers wide, with an absolute elevation of about 200 meters. Han guangwu emperor liu xiu zte, leaving nanyang is brave, dushan jade thousands of years of mining history, to nanyang is charming.
The only home of jade words ancient and modern
Walking into nanyang is like walking into the world of jade. Nanyang city, dushan mountain pass, nanyang city under the town of zhenping county, zhenping county under the town of stone Buddha temple, jade market, jade shop everywhere, listed jade, jade materials, there are local jade materials, jade, and hetian jade, mixed jade, jade.
Nanyang continues to deduce and expand the history and legend of central plains jade capital.
And regardless of belong to jadeite jade, China's nephrite usually think that there are four famous jade, namely xinjiang hetian jade, nanyang dushan jade, shaanxi lantian jade, liaoning xiuyu.
Four famous jade, hetian jade and xiuyu, grow in the more remote territory, shaanxi lantian jade grows outside the hanguan pass, only nanyang dushan jade grows in the central plains of the ancient people.
Four famous jade was discovered and used by members of the big family of the Chinese nation time source, is still to be verified, but nanyang dushan jade into the vision of the Chinese ancestors, and then be polished into utensils, its time is undoubtedly early.
According to the "complete collection of Chinese jade" by Yang boda, an expert on jade research and researcher of the Palace Museum (weibo), the jade found in the relics of yangshao culture and longshan culture in guanzhong, central plains, shandong and other places has both local jade and nanyang dushan jade. Yangshao culture was around 7000 years ago, indicating that at least 7000 years ago, dushan jade in nanyang had been developed and used as labor tools, ritual implements and daily ornaments.
More than 300 jade articles were unearthed in the tomb of fu hao in anyang, henan province more than 3000 years ago.
In nanyang, the hometown of dushan jade, a jade axe was found in a site of yangshao culture. This jade axe is dark green in colour. Experts believe that this jade axe is made of dushan jade in nanyang.
In nanyang city, there are a large number of dushan jade in the folk collection, whose age ranges from thousands to hundreds of years, until today, the time chain is clear.
Thus it can be seen that the mining, carving and grinding and use of tushan jade in nanyang has a history of at least 7000 years and a source of 7000 years, accompanied by the journey of Chinese civilization, which has been inexhaustible for generations until now.
Dushan jade is the only known and unique alteration anorthosite jade in the world. Its constituent minerals are mainly plagioclase (mainly calcium feldspar) and tetrazoite, followed by emerald mica stone, yellow-green amphibole, dark green epidote, maroon rutile and other jade minerals.
The diversity of dushan jade mineral composition constitutes the diversity of dushan jade chemical composition.
Dushan jade and other jade species, with translucent, stone delicate, no stray tufts. If coupled with pure emerald green color, it can be compared with jade. Therefore, nanyang dushan jade is also known as "nanyang jade".
Nanyang dushan jade, multi - color, and rich in legendary color.
The warring states period that makes now more than 2000 years, the son bian of jing shan and get uncut jade one side, offer to the king of chu, the king of chu and the left and right sides recognize jade as stone, cut off bian he's foot; Some years later, jing shanzi bian and holding jade again presented the king of chu, as a result, he lost his other foot; Again for several years, bian and let his son carry his jade again to offer, eventually have insight, bian and jade from the new generation of chu king by Jane, for the king of the world to seek after. Therefore, the "round" of he shi produced a series of royal seal legends associated with Chinese history, such as "return to zhao with perfect quality", "qin emperor's seal", "sun zedebao" and "immortal seal".
The story of he shibi is full of the glory of dialectical materialism. According to du guangting of the tang dynasty recorded different records, he bi "side of the color blue, white color is seen." Later, some people thought that there was white in the bi, bi and white, should be jade. But at that time is the jade has not entered the central plains, or even found. Bian he couldn't get a piece of jade material in the jingshan mountains in nanzhang area of xiangyang today. Because the foot of jingshan mountain is xiangyang and the han river, which is not far to the north, namely, nanyang. Meanwhile, the white river that runs through nanyang joins the han river in the south of xiangyang.
Nanyang dushan jade was used by the emperor as the seal of the jade, this is its highest courtesy, generally speaking, nanyang dushan jade is more likely to be favored by the middle and lower classes. Dushan jade is a famous jade and also a popular jade.
Jade town jade city jade linglong
Nanyang dushan jade mine in dushan, dushan jade carving process in zhenping.
Zhenping is a county under the jurisdiction of nanyang. The county seat is 30 kilometers west of nanyang city and only 20 kilometers from dushan.
Autumn crisp season, we went to nanyang visit jade, the first to zhenping county.
County has a jade city, kilometers long street, tuantuan market, hundreds of jade shops, crowded.
Into a two - room jade store, store tidy up, the cabinet is a jade son, glass counter is a variety of carved pieces. Look closely, there are colorful nanyang dushan jade, quiet and beautiful myanmar jade, but also gentle and elegant hetian jade, agate and some unknown jade. The varieties of carved pieces are bracelets, chest pendants, eardrops, handlebars and so on.
The shop owner is friendly and serious, and claims that his shop only sells A goods, not B goods, jade carving goods are the shop before the factory, production and sales. See his face is good, like a businessman gas is not very thick, and talk with it, the party knows that this zhang surname shop owner is formerly the director of a state-owned jade carving factory in zhenping county.
Talking happily, the shopkeeper Lao zhang took me to the store directly opposite the street. It had three storefronts, one more than the previous one, and seemed more spacious. Look at the jade carving on the counter, the variety is roughly the same as the shop just now, but the knife work seems to be a little old. Lao zhang said that the shop opposite is owned by his son and wife, and this shop belongs to him and his wife. This is a two-mill business, run independently by father and son in collaboration.
Lao zhang also told us that zhenping has a history of jade carving for thousands of years, living under dushan. In the 1950s and 1960s, dushan jade industry flourished for a time. After reforming and opening up, jade carving enterprise changes change successively, the jade carving backbone in the factory leaves a factory in succession "run alone help", oneself do workshop type jade carving workshop, factory, formed north and south to carve jade gradually "spring and autumn and warring states period". At this point, Lao zhang seems to be full of emotion.
Thirty years he dong, forty years he xi. Now the center of nanyang jade carving industry is not in zhenping county, but in zhenping county, near dushan.
It's only about ten minutes' drive, ten kilometers north, and there's a huge stone sculpture for sale on both sides of the road. In these blue stone and granite stone carving "alley welcome", the stone Buddha temple arrived.
The jade market of stone Buddha temple originally had two long streets and a square, with thousands of merchants and more than 10,000 merchants. In recent years, tens of thousands of square meters of new market, and the original jade street, jade square into a line, forming a huge jade city.
Stone Buddha temple jade city more than 1,000 meters long, about 200 to 300 meters wide, the city has Chinese jade culture exhibition, nanyang dushan jade exhibition, there are shoulder to shoulder shops, there are hetian jade bazaar type jade city square, and even the floor stalls, supporting the board open air marketing "board stalls". The market in the building row upon row, people, jade charm yo... Among them, people will feel the refreshing infiltration of Chinese jade culture.
Stone Buddha temple jade city, nanyang dushan jade carving pieces are mainly mountain and people, animals, plants ornaments, but also exquisite such as myanmar jade ornaments, such as bracelets, earrings, corsages, chest pendants, handlebars, their grades from high to low, diverse, colorful. Nanyang dushan jade in his hometown in a variety of shapes, high-spirited.
Nanyang and its subordinate zhenping county, especially the stone Buddha temple, have become the largest jade wholesale market in central China. And nanyang dushan jade, jade, hetian jade carving pieces, both wholesale and retail. Those who are familiar with the industry, those who are not familiar with it, and those who are not familiar with it at all, are able to buy their favorite jade in the jade city of stone Buddha temple. Look at the prices here, and then go to the jade counters in big city malls, and you will be dizzy or frightened by the gap between the two.
In the city, there are various kinds of jade carvings, some of which are acceptable to the public, and some of which cost a lot of money. Of course, the boutique is more concentrated, or the city of nanyang jade shop. In the center of nanyang city, the right bank of the white river, there is a large market of jade, nanyang local jade carving company's big store, nanyang jade merchant exquisite medium, small store, approximately more than 100. These shops mostly to nanyang dushan jade, jade second, and tian jade occasionally exposed. Here, nanyang dushan yushan son, often amazing works. Small, such as bracelets, good price is also in tens of thousands of yuan and tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands, its beautiful, its price under myanmar jade.
Zhenping county, stone Buddha temple, nanyang city, around a jade mountain, continue thousands of years of jade culture, formed three jade market, they are a whole - nanyang jade wholesale and retail. They also have unspoken division of labor: the elegance of zhenping county, the batch of shi fo temple, the level of nanyang city. Nanyang jade wholesale market in central China, has undertaken the promotion and spread of the current jade culture.
Qianchuanqiu independent visit yushan
Dushan, nanyang city northwest of a hill, and wei kunlun mountains than, one is a high mountain, one is a short hill. High mountains, and tian yu sheng xiang; Short hill is not short, dushan jade has its own charm.
The central plains of the plains, nanyang in the southwest of the yu, for the funiu mountain surrounded, is a basin. Basin thousands of miles of flat domain on a mountain suddenly uplift, piaoluzhuo, quiet if the virgin, thousands of years, also attracted countless love jade heartflutter.
That day, I entered the dushan, a dark moving mountain in yuxiang, from the southeast slope.
There were no trees on the dushan, but the vegetation was thick with the common southern oak and wattle.
The old men in dushan village said, pangu opened the sky in tongbo mountain, nuwa mend the sky in the mountains, they use five-color stone axes, colorful stones, from where? From dushan. The old men said dushan jade magic, mining super early. Look for history in fog gauze in legend wonderful, half slope jade and nanyang stone axe can card dushan jade mining time when be in neolithic age, as for and shi bi already than nanyang huangshan unearthed that handle stone axe late two or three thousand years.
Dushan jade mining has been six or seven thousand years, past dynasties, officials and folk, in dushan dug a lot of tunnels, dig a lot of mining surface. Thinking carefully, the height and slope are limited dushan, should be everywhere mine caves, everywhere scars, can not bear to see.
Fortunately, today climb dushan, taste no such feeling. This is because, the early people dug the mine, the mine stops then the hole is sealed, the hole can "heal"; Second, dushan lush vegetation, cover up the traces everywhere.
The old hole heals, but the new one is fresh.
On the mountainside of the southeast slope of dushan, there is a tunnel quarrying operation, the hole is more than 2 meters wide, nearly 3 meters high, the hole is paved with railway tracks, dump trucks in and out, transport mine waste rock, dumping to the hillside, in front of the hole mat out hundreds of square meters of stone platform. At present, the platform stretches forward day by day, a little harsh among the vegetation.
As we emerged from the mine, we asked the dumper boy how deep the hole was and what the ore was like. "The miner replied," the mine is deep, "and" useful ore is stored in it, and the owner escorts it out at the end of the day." Pay attention to the dumping of mine waste rock, stone size, small stone such as fist, big is like a bucket, some ore like green, brown, white in the sun shine. Silently pick up a few small pieces, chat for ore, protect the field of silence.
How high the mountains are, how long the water is; How thick the mountains are and how moist the water is. Beside the mine, there are ditches in which the water gurgles. This is the water from the pit. Pick up the rubble, put into the water a little dip, a lot of green from the stone suddenly appeared, suddenly felt in the heart of a green paddy field, very happy.
Standing on this site, two other, slightly smaller, stubble piles are visible. According to the local people, the jade in the mountain is very limited, and the government is strict in mining and taking jade, some small mines have been closed.
There are many villages at the southeast foot of dushan, and there are shops, restaurants and Banks on both sides of the mountain's exports, which should all be derivatives of dushan jade business.
The village under yushan mountain is a veritable jade village, near the entrance to the mountain, a village, every household in front of the yard, until the house, filled with dushan jade materials, the most have dozens of cubic meters; On the west side of a door, the door is MAO shi, inside is the counter, counter opposite to the wall, standing a few pieces of thick MAO zi - wool material slightly collation, natural formation, its simple, its strange color shape, very provoking. Ask price, host answer yue: tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands, still have hundreds of thousands of yuan.
A few lianpian villages on the north side of the southeast foot are also full of wool materials. If anything, the wool is bigger. Saw some of the courtyard stone, the sound of sharpening, in education, approached agent, is someone in sculpture, its volume is larger, dashanzi mostly tens of centimeters of dashanzi, make full use of the dushan jade carving of multicolor is colorful, qiao diao thing or person or plant, animal, both its shape, also qiao its color, wonderful artical excelling nature, like nature itself.